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Flashcards in LEC 22 Deck (57):
1

all of the different popula&ons of organisms (including bacteria) that live within a designated area

community

2

Community ecology focuses on:

–factors around community assembly –autecology* of specific residents in the context of the community – interac&ons among the organisms

3

The study of an individual organism or a single species

community ecology

4

Species respond ______ to environmental gradients, not as a group: Species respond so composition of communities along a continuum will vary: one species may be present in several communities, some only in one.

independently

5

a region of transition between two biological communities.

ecotones

6

Places between abrupt environmental changes

ecotones

7

then also change abruptly, not gradually, though there are some species

plant communities

8

The totality of ways a species uses resources or responds to condi&ons of its environment: food consumed, space used, temperature and moisture requirements, etc.

niche

9

can be visualized as an n-­‐dimensional hyperspace defined by n axes (axes would include all physiological, morphological, behavioral, environmental, etc. condi&ons relevant to the niche)

niche

10

Axes that define niche space may involve physiological, morphological, behavioral, environmental and other types of traits/conditions

niche

11

The intersection of niche spaces occupied by tropical and temperate tree species as defined by

height,
seed mass,
and specific leaf area (SLA)

12

One of many factors that canmodify niche space.
•Niches are restricted because other species share the same limited resource(s)

interspecific competition

13

types of interspecific competition

–Interference competion
–Explosive competion

14

In _____, organisms use up resources directly. Once used, the resource is no longer available for other species to use.

exploitive competition

15

In ____, one organism prevents other organisms from using the resource.

interference competition

16

Of the two mechanisms, exploitation competition is the more common

exploitive

17

refer to the environmental position that species occupy in an ecosystem

fundamental and realized niche

18

represent all the environmental conditions where a species is able to live

fundamental niche

19

is where the species actually lives

realized niche

20

Species with the exact same niche cannot co-exist indefinitely when resources are limiting. One species will eventually drive the other to extinction.

Gause’s Law of Competitive Exclusion:

21

Some possible environmental niche axes for plants:

–Light
–Soil moisture and root depth
–Soil nutrient par&&oning, maybe through microbial symbionts

22

theory is a framework to understand how competitor traits can maintain species diversity and stave-off competitive exclusion even among similar species living in ecologically similar environments.

species coexistence

23

Growth patterns of plant competion

–Grow taller, wider, denser (light and space)

24

in time or space, may allow co-existence.

partitioning of resources

25

When species divide a niche to avoid competition

partitioning of resources

26

How plants compete (or not) with each other : PLant competition

a. Growth patterns
b. Sequestration of critical resources
c. Liebig's Law of the Minimum
d. Retreat from competition

27

Sequestration of critical resources

–Accumulate, sequester cri&cal resources and deny competitors their use •Brachypodiumbinpinnatum and phosphorous •Opposite strategy: CA na&ves and nitrogen

28

It states that growth is dictated not by total resources available, but by the scarcest resource (limiting factor)

leibig's law of minimum

29

–Develop tolerance for harsh condi&ons

retreat from competition

30

determine annual grassland species composi&on in a given year

rain patterns

31

Niches defined, in part, by ____ and _____

seed dynamics and species phenology

32

Facilitated by combination of shorter- and longer-lived annual seed banks in combination withvarying weather conditions in different years that favor different species

species coexistance

33

facilitated by different species being favored in different years

species coexistance

34

____ each respond differently to timing, pattern of rainy season

Grasses, forbs, and clovers

35

germina&on and flowering of some species occur late in season

phenology

36

Other factors of species coexistance in california annual grasslands Other factors:

slope/aspect, soils, livestock and fire disturbance, gopher/ground squirrel activity

37

community relationships

predator and prey

38

Herbivory responses by plants:

–Chemical
–Mechanical:
–Thigmonasty:
–Mimicry/camouflage:

39

(secondary metabolites), makes plants toxic or taste bad

chemical response

40

prickles, thorns, spines, sclereids, barbed hairs, gummy saps

mechanical response

41

fold up parts so they are less vulnerable

THIGMONASTY

42

structures that deter aWack, such as fake eggs and mimicking of rocks

mimicry or camouflage

43

–Mustard family (Brassicaceae) and cabbage buWerflies – larvae blend in with mustard leaves AND are able to digest mustard oils
–Monarch buWerflies and milkweed (Ascepiadaceae) family: consuming cardiac glycosides of milkweeds make them undesirable prey

Coevolutionary responses by herbivores

44

2 or more organisms interact in more or less permanent rela&onships due to coevolu,on

symbiosis

45

mutually responsive adapta&on between two species. Myriad examples in pollinators or parasites.

coevolution

46

Interac,ons between species influence and CHANGE the gene pools and traits of BOTH species.

coevolution

47

symbiosis: mutaulism

n fixing bacteria

48

Mutualism: mycorrhizal rela&onships

“mushrooms” and “toadstools” are the frui&ng body of mycorrhizal fungi

49

a partnership between a fungus and an alga. (Mutualism

lichen

50

dodder on pickleweed

External plant parasite

51

a hemiparasiticrelationship

Castillejacoccinea andgrass

52

world’s biggest flower? Because it is a parasite on a large vine.

rafflesia

53

n association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm.

commensalism

54

facilitation

help sometimes benign

55

s the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time, nothing remains the same habitats are constantly changing

ecological succession

56

s the series of community changes which occur on an entirely new habitat which has never been colonized before. For example, a newly quarried rock face or sand dunes.

primary succession

57

is the series of community changes which take place on a previously colonized, but disturbed or damaged habitat. For example, after felling trees in a woodland, land clearance or a fire.

secondary succession