Flashcards in LEC 23 Deck (21):
a community or suite of communi2es and the physical environment (includes bio2c + abio2c factors)
All life depends on the energy stored in ____; the dynamics around that energy shapes ecosystems
Energy flows through communi2es from one kind of organism to another, in a hierarchy of levels •Each of these is a ____
Energy that maintains life contained in
light and chemical bonds
he number of trophic levels depends on the total amount of ___ available in a community
rate at which photo-‐ or chemosynthesis produces organic products) at the producer level sets the stage; measure of amount of energy available
–Gross primary productivity
-net primary productivity
when energy changes from one form to another form, or matter moves freely, entropy (disorder) in a closed system increases. Differences in temperature, pressure, and density tend to even out horizontally after a while.
2nd law of thermodynamics
As energy moves through the ____ of communities, more and more of it becomes heat at each successive level
Rate of maOer (or energy) conversion/synthesis by heterotrophs
____ shapes communities, determines # of trophic levels.
Amount of energy available and its movement through trophic levels
is the production of useful chemical energy that is being used to carry out the processes whereas
Gross primary productivity
is chemical energy that is not being used but stored
Net primary productivity
s the total stored or incoming energy of main chemical producers
is the total expended or outgoing energy of the main chemical producers
represents the formation of living mass of a heterotrophic population or group of populations over some period of time
can be found at any trophic level.
____ eat from all levels.
Decomposers, detri8vores, and scavengers
an animal that feeds on dead organic material, especially plant detritus.
Only a fraction of ___ (average of 10%) conveyed from one level to the next
amount of energy (and biomass) available for higher trophic levels is ____