Lec 5-2 Blood Groups, Transfusions, Transplants Flashcards Preview

Dental Microbiology > Lec 5-2 Blood Groups, Transfusions, Transplants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lec 5-2 Blood Groups, Transfusions, Transplants Deck (51):
1

antigens for blood groups are characterized by their different blank

carb moieties

2

abo and h systems have separate blank so are independent

loci

3

h genes code for blank

fucosyl transferase

4

abo blood groups depend on the addition to the blank by certain enzymes

chain

5

A antigen adds blank to the chain

NAG

6

B antigen adds a terminal blank to the chain

galactose

7

o gene adds this to the chain

nothing

8

o antigen is defined by the absence of blank at the end of the chain

sugar moiety

9

ab blood group has these antigens on erythrocytes

A and B

10

most immunogenic Rh blood group

D

11

Rh positive has this antigen

D

12

Rh negative has blank

little d

13

transfusion of incompatible blood

hemolysis

14

graft from same individual

autograft

15

graft from genetically identical individual

isograft

16

graft from a different species

xenograft

17

first set rejection takes blank than second set rejection due to a second exposure to foreign tissue

longer

18

autograft acceptance first step

revascularization

19

first set rejection for graft has blank but then blank occurs after immune cells invade

revascularization, necrosis

20

graft rejection is mediated by blank not blank

t cells, antibodies

21

need blank t cells for graft rejection

cd4 AND cd8

22

the histocompatibility is primarily determined by the blank

mhc locus

23

there are more/less antigens involved in tissue transplant than blood transfusion

more

24

ABO, HLA, MLR, and minor histocompatibility loci are all types of blank

tissue typing

25

HLA tissue typing is done two ways

find genes that are there, find protein products there

26

to find protein products of HLA

microcytotoxicity test

27

to find genes that are there in HLA tissue typing

molecular methods

28

tissue typing that takes two sets of lymphocytes and see if they fight each other or get along

MLR

29

even if a fully mhc compatible donor isnt found, blank may still be possible

transplantation

30

more blank in MLR means more incompatibility

proliferation

31

MLR is good because we can actually see the interaction of the t cells but the problem is this

it takes a few days which is often too long

32

matching class blank HLA is more important than matching class blank

2, 1

33

tissue typing is more/less important for liver and heart transplants compared to kidney and bone marrow transplants

less

34

transplants that don't need to be matched at all

corneal

35

if there are 1 or 2 mismatches in class 1, this happens

graft survives

36

if there are 1 or 2 mismatches in class 2, this happens

graft rejected

37

if there are 3 or 4 mismatches in class 1, this happens

graft rejected

38

rejection before vascularization

hyperacute rejection

39

rejection within 10 days

acute

40

rejection after months or years

chronic

41

chronic rejection occurs via these cells

humoral and cell mediated immunological memory

42

two stages of rejection

sensitization, effector

43

sensitization stage is when t cells begin to recognize blank

alloantigens

44

effector stage is when these get involved

cell mediated, delayed type hyeprsensitivity, humoral, cytokines

45

this is usually needed to downregulate the immune system so a graft is accepted

immunosuppressive therapy

46

this immunosupressant blocks tcr signaling and is for heart, liver, kidney transplants

cyclosporin A

47

this immunosupressant is used but is very specific

monoclonal antibodies

48

bone marrow transplants are mostly used for

malignancies in blood

49

bone marrow rejections are usually due to this

graft versus host disease where graft actually rejects the host

50

sites that fail to induce an immune response because they are separated from the immune system like the cornea

immunologically privileged sites

51

hemolysis involves these during rejection

clotting factors, complement factors