LEC34: Pelvis, Perineum, and Female Reproductive Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC34: Pelvis, Perineum, and Female Reproductive Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC34: Pelvis, Perineum, and Female Reproductive Anatomy Deck (93):
1

openings in male pelvic diaphragm

urethral hiatus, anorectal hiatus

2

openings in female pelvic diaphragm

urethra, vagina, rectum

3

muscles of pelvic diaphragm

puborectalis, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, coccygeus (ischiococcygeus)

4

extremity muscles

muscles that move the lower extremity, but origins are outside pelvic diaphragm

obturator internus, piriformis

5

levator anai

muscles that elevate the anus; cover pelvic opening

puborectalis, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus

6

clinical significance of women having wider gap between levator anai muscles

after birth, area becomes loose, more likely to have organs prolapse through this area

7

kegel

exercises women can do to tighten pelvic floor muscles

8

what does pelvic diaphragm support

organs: rectum, bladder, uterus

9

where is external anal sphincter

below pelvic diaphragm

10

muscles of anal sphincter

1) levator ani portion of pelvic diaphragm (SKELETAL)
2) external anal sphincter (SKELETAL)
3) internal anal sphincter (SMOOTH)

11

what innervates anal sphincter area

inferior rectal nerve, branch of pudendal n.
S2, 3, 4

12

what is the shape of the anal canal / why does this matter

banana shape- flexure from sigmoid colon > rectum
anything inserted into canal must be flexible, not too big for that area (i.e. re: abuse)

13

2 triangles inferior to pelvic bones

anal triangle of perineum, urogenital triangle of perineum

14

boundaries of anal triangle of perineum

point of coccyx, front of pubis, ischeal tuberosities (on side)

15

what structure is wider in females

urogenital triangle of perineum - can widen during childbirth

16

perineum meaning

"area around the newborn"
same name for men and women

17

what surrounds anal triangle

ischiorectal fossa, pocket filled with fat - can compress when vagina or anus expands, and is expendable

18

urogenital diaphragm (UGD)

aka deep perineal pouch
forms a shelf superficial to the pelvic diaphragm, has 2 layers of fascia

19

layers of fascia around UGD

superior and inferior (perineal) fascia layers

20

what does UGD's fascia membrane contain

contains muscles of urogenital diaphragm in a pouch called deep perineal pouch

21

what is within deep perineal pouch

deep transverse perineal muscle
sphincter urethrae m (males)
sphincter urethrea m + spincter urethrovaginalis (females)

22

structures within male urogenital diaphragm/deep pouch

urethral sphincter, bulbourethral gland, deep transverse perineal muscle

23

what does bulbourethral gland contribute to

fluid of the ejaculate

24

shape of female bladder

flat top, except when very expanded, because uterus sits directly on top

25

urethra length in women vs. men

short in women, long in men

26

is cistitis more common in women or men

women because their urethra is so short, can get bacteria up tube very easily

27

cell type of bladder, importance

transitional epithelium
allows for massive distortion of shape of whole organ

28

why does bladder sometimes appear to be an abdominal organ, and is it?

transitional epithelium of bladder means bladder can change shape, go over pelvic brim, appear to go into abdominal area, although in reality it's in peritoneum so isn't an abdominal organ

29

can you work out your bladder muscles

no!
can train yourself to not react when full, but not skeletal, so not excercisable

30

can you work out pelvic floor muscles?

yes!
are skeletal muscles, so can work them out

31

sections of male urethra

1) preprostatic part
2) prostatic part- through the prostate
3) membranous part- through peritoneal membrane
4) spongy part- through penis

32

where do prostate fluids drain

prostatic sinuses, where prostatic utricle, opening of ejaculatory ducts are

33

sympathetic innervation of pelvic area

superior hypogastric plexus
comes from above

34

parasympathetic innervation of pelvic area

pelvics
go into inferior hypogastric plexus
> smooth muscle of pelvis, i.e. bladder, to propel things down the ureter

35

what controls erectile tissue

blood flow
controlled by autonomics of pelvic splanchnic nerves

36

prostatic plexus

cluster of nerves from inferior hypogastric plexus nerves; run on both sides of diaphragm, cluster around prostate
makes surgery difficult

37

glans

where fluid exits seminal vesicle

38

common ducts for urination and ejaculation

ejaculatory duct, prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy (penile) urethra

39

erectile tissue made of

corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosum

40

which erectile tissue is where urethra runs

corpus spongiosum

41

why isn't the clitoris a male penis

the urethra doesn't pass through it
its erectile tissues do not enclose the urethra

42

what structures do sperm pass through

testis, epididymis, prostate, passage through diaphragms, corpus spongiosum, glans

43

what surrounds corpus cavernosum

tough fibrous coat
ensures tissue is extremely stiff when erect, penetration occurs

44

why is it important corpus spongiosum is spongy

stays soft, even when erect, so can expand and allow ejaculate w/ sperm to travel through

45

os penis

most mammals have penis made of bone; humans likely don't because ability to become erect means good cardiovascular strength; evolutionarily helpful for mate-finding

46

female erectile tissue function

stiffens the vaginal orifice

47

female erectile bodies/locations

1) corpus cavernosum (body, glans, crus of clitoris)
2) corpus spongiosum (bulb of vestibule)

48

greater vestibular glands function

lubricate vagina

49

what stiffens vaginal orifice? bulb of vestibule function

bulb of vestibule

50

clitoris body and glans homologous to

dorsal paired penis bodies

51

bulbs of vestibule homologous to

bulb of penis, ventral body, glans

52

where are erectile tissues located

superficial to UGD, in superficial pouch/perineal space

53

what covers erectile tissues

skeletal muscles

54

what covers crus of clitoris

ischiocavernous muscles

55

what covers spongy tissue, bulb of penis?

bulbospongiosus musle

56

skeletal muscles of superficial pouch

bulbospongiosus, ischiocavernosus, superficial transverse perineal

57

what does superficial pouch contain?

scrotal contents, erectile tissues, skeletal muscle covers, an outer layer of fascia

58

superficial pouch location re: UGD

below

59

is urethra inside the clitoris?

no! separate. women do not pee out of their vagina.

60

homologue to testis

ovaries

61

homologue to gubenaculum

round ligament

62

homologue to prostate

skene's glands

63

homologue to prostatic utricle

uterus

64

homologue to bulbourethral glands

greater vestibular glands

65

skene's glands

aka female prostate
located between urethra and vagina
has ducts, glands; make fluid, "female ejaculation," serves antimicrobial purpose to prevent intercourse-induced cystitis

66

what is g-spot, why controversial

region of anterior vaginal wall
proposed to have increased sensitivity, but no anatomical data exists to support this

67

homologue to body of penis

shaft of clitoris

68

homologue to skin around scrotum

labium majus

69

homologue to raphe of penis

urethral opening

70

innervation of female external genitalia

perineal branch of pudendal nerve, inferior rectal nerve (around anus)

71

blood supply to external female genitalia

perineal branches of internal pudendal artery, inferior rectal artery (around anus)

72

bladder innervation

smooth m., so GVE fibers from lumbar splanchnics (sympathetic) and pelvic splanchnics (parasympathetic)

73

pelvic, UGD diaphragms, superficial pouch innervation

skeletal m., so GSE fibers from pudendal & other sacral spinal nerves (S2-4)

74

ovary innervation

GVA fibers; travel along ovarian artery to T10

75

uterus, vagina innervation

GVE fibers from lumbar splanchnics (sympathetics), pelvic splanchnics (parasympathetics); GVA back travel along same path

76

lymphatic drainage from ovaries goes where?

aortic lymph nodes

77

where do ovarian (gonadal) arteries branch from?

directly from abdominal aorta

78

which arteries are crucial to pregnancy?

abdominal aorta branch:ovarian a.,
internal iliac branches: uterine a., vaginal a., internal pudendal a.
all anastomose, support pregnancy

79

size of uterus over lifetime

grows from birth > puberty > adult > menopause, regresses to size of before changes happened during puberty

80

uterus position re: bladder?

uterus is in an anteverted position over bladder

81

what facilitates vaginal walls' stretch?

abundance of fat in anterior recess of ischiorectal fossa

82

cardinal ligaments function, location

aka lateral cervical ligament/suspensory ligament
at base of broad ligament of the uterus
contains uterine artery, vein
attaches cervix to lateral pelvic wall by attachment to obturator fascia of obturator internus m.

83

ligaments that support uterus, ovaries

round ligament (ligamentum teres), proper ovarian ligament, uterosacral fold, suspensory ligament of ovary (contains ovarian vessels)

84

layers of broad ligament of uterus

covers uterus
1) mesometrium- around body of uterus
2) mesoalpinx- around tube
3) mesovarium- comes out toward us, where ovary is suspended

85

what surrounds cervix

fornix; have 2 fornices (anterior, posterior)
back alley abortion with straight tool can penetrate posterior fornix, go into peritoneum

86

what is cervical opening called

os

87

what/where is opening of uterine tube?

os of uterine tube
in middle of fimbriae

88

how do you ensure a woman can be fertilized, tubes aren't closed?

introduce dye into uterus, it emerges from ostia of uterine tubes and enters peritoneum

89

what happens during ovulation that causes pain?

parietal peritoneum tears > pain

90

why can uterus expand for pregnancy?

transitional epithelium, smooth muscle

91

where does a pregnant woman feel late appendicitis pain?

anywhere that her appendix has been pushed

92

why do pregnant women need to pee so much and become constipated?

bladder becomes compressed, above public arch; rectum compressed also

93

why so much pain during childbirth?

so many different nerve fibers in this area carry pain from all different surrounding structures
epidural anesthesia mitigates pain