LEC39: Microstructure of Male Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

Structures: Part Deux > LEC39: Microstructure of Male Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC39: Microstructure of Male Reproductive System Deck (103):
1

how much semen & sperm does avg man have / ejaculate

3.5 mL semen, each ejaculate has 200-300 million sperm

2

components of male reproductive system

testes, genital ducts (paired), glands (exocrine), penis

3

parts of (paired) genital ducts

efferent ductules (ductuli efferentes)
epididymis
vas deferens (ductus deferens)
ejaculatory ducts

4

(exocrine) glands of male reproductive system

seminal vesicles (2, paired)
prostate (1)
bulbourethral glands of Cowper (paired)

5

efferent ductules function

sperm passage

6

epididymis function

sperm storage, maturation

7

vas deferens function

where sperm pass through > ejaculatory ducts

8

where are glands of cowpoer

urogenital diaphragm

9

what forms capsule for testes

tunica albuginea

10

what divides testes into lobules, how many lobules are there?

septa
250 lobules

11

what is within lobules?

1-4 seminiferous tubules / lobule, avg=2
each 50 cm long

12

combined length of seminiferous tubules in 1 testis

250m long

13

parts of epididymis

head, body, tail

14

what contains the rete testis

mediastinum testis

15

what is between seminiferous tubules in TV sections

interstitial tissue, where testes produce hormones (endocrine fxn happens here)

16

what surrounds seminiferous tubules

interstitial tissue
basement membrane

17

types of cells in seminiferous epithelium

1) spermatogenic cells/germ cells, contain all phase of germ cell, from spermatogonia thru maturing sperm
2) sertoli cells/somatic cells
3) basement membrane

18

3 types of spermatogonia, what differences mean

1) dark type A
2) pale type A
3) type B
based on staining characteristic of nucleus - if stains dark/pain

19

3 processes of spermatogenesis

1) spermatocytogenesis
2) meiosis
3) spermiogenesis

20

what does spermatocytoenesis consist of?

spermatogonia > 1o spermatocytes

21

what does meiosis of spermatogenesis consist of?

1o spermatocytes (2N) thru meiosis I > 2o spermatocytes (1N) thru meiosis II > spermatids

22

what does spermiogenesis consist of?

spermatids (1N) > sperm (1N)

23

spermatocytogenesis process

1) dark type A cell undergoes mitosis, becomes pale type A
2) pale type A becomes 1o spermatocyte; that undergoes prophase of meiosis I

24

what happens to 1o spermatocyte

for 22 days, it undergoes meiosis I

25

when does 1o spermatocyte become 2o spermatocyte

at end of meiosis I

26

what does 2o spermatocyte undergo

meiosis II; spends 8 hours at interphase of meiosis II before completing & becoming spermatid

27

how long does entire process of spermatogonia to sperm take

64 days

28

what is spermiogenesis

transformation of spermatids into sperm
acrosome develops

29

what is process of acrosome development, where does it come from?

from golgi apparatus's hydrolitic enzymes
acrosomal part of sperm develops from granule > vesicle > cap > full acrosome cap structure on upper part of sperm nucleus

30

how long does sperm spend in epididymis

1-12 days

31

what happens during spermiogenesis

1) acrosome develops
2) flagellum develops
3) mitochondria aid sperm tail development

32

what is flagellum derived from, and what is its main structural component?

from 1 of 2 centrioles
contains microtubule arrangement associated with cilia

33

length of sperm head, tail

head: 5 micron
tail: 60 micron

34

what structure in center of sperm tail is important, why

cilium
use mitochondria for movement
surrounded by CT

35

how does sperm move in seminiferous tubule?

moves along genital duct via testicular folds down the duct, as it does not have head/tail yet

36

when can sperm move alone?

once mature, capacitated, in epididymis/oviduct

37

structure of sperm tail

from head end > end of tail
middle piece: mitochondria, dense fibers
principal piece: fibrous sheath
end piece: cilium

38

what does acrosome contain for digestion

lysosomal enzymes

39

what color do lysosomal enzymes of acrosome stain?

red
nucleus = yellow

40

what does zona pellucida express?

3 glycoproteins:
ZP1, ZP2, ZP3

41

how does sperm penetrate ovum?

acrosomal enzyme reaction; hyaluronidase penetrates corona radiata; sperm head binds to zona pellucida; sperm binds to ZP3 of zona pellucida, enters ovum

42

what kind of cells are sertoli cells?

somatic cells

43

what does sertoli cell contact?

base- basement membrane
extends up into seminiferous tubule

44

what is the nature of sertoli cells?

constantly changing
can move from lower > upper part of tubule

45

sertoli cell functions?

1) supportive: structural support, nutrients, waste material transport to blood/lymph for spermatogenic cells

2) phagocytosis: of residual bodies, degenerative spermatogenic cells

3) secretion: androgen-binding protein which binds testosterone; inhibin which suppressess FSH secretion; testicular fluid

4) blood-testis barrier

46

what do sertoli cells secrete?

1) androgen-binding protein: binds testosterone

2) inhibin: suppresses FSH secretion

3) testicular fluid

47

what connects adjacent sertoli cells? what is result?

tight junctions between adjacent sertoli cells' cell processes
this forms blood-testis barrier

48

what does blood-testis barrier do?

divides seminiferous tubules into
1) basal compartment- below tight junction, houses spermatogonia
2) adluminal compartment- above tight junction, contains 1o, 2o spermatocytes, maturing sperm

49

what is morphological evidence of blood-testis barrier?

lanthanum nitrate (e- dense material) cannot enter adluminal compartment when injected into blood stream

50

blood-testis barrier functions

1) restricts passage of large MW chemicals, mutagens, toxic drugs, antibodies from blood circulation > adluminal compartment

2) protects maturing sperm in adluminal compartment against blood born noxious agents

51

when does blood-testis barrier form

puberty

52

is there movement within blood-testis barrier?

yes, can open/close to allow sperm to move up from basal > adluminal compartment

53

what is between seminiferous tubules

interstitial tissue

54

interstitial tissue function?

endocrine tissue of the testes

55

what does interstitial tissue contain?

leydig cells

56

what do leydig cells do?

secrete testosterone, under LH

57

what factors affect spermatogenesis?

1) temperature
2) x-ray irradiation
3) malnutrition
4) alcoholism
5) cadmium
6) hormones

58

what is cryptorchidism?

undescended testis in body cavity
cannot make sperm because temperature (37.8) in body cavity

59

what doesn't effect sertoli cells and leydig cells, and why?

temperature and x-rays
because they are somatic cells

ex: with cryptorchidism, testis cannot make sperm but do produce testosterone from leydig cells

60

hormonal control of the MRS

go over this

61

where do seminiferous tubules end?

rete testis, in mediastinum in posterior part of testis

62

where does fluid from rete testis go?

efferent ductules > epididymis

63

how long is epididymis?

4-6m long; coils into 5 cm

64

what is efferent ductule surrounded by

smooth muscle

65

what does lumen of epididymis contain

clusters of sperm, cell debris suspended in testicular fluid

66

what happens while sperm are in epididymis?

1-12 days
undergo progressive maturation
acquire motility
DO NOT CAPACITATE
absorption, secretion
phagocytosis of degenerating sperm

67

cell type of epididymis epithelium?

pseudostratified columnar epithelium w/ stereocilia

68

what are stereocilia

modified long microvilli
lack motility
increase surface absorptive area of epididymis

69

cell type of rete testis?

cuboidal with cilia
move testicular fluid along tubule

70

cell type of efferent ductule?

tall ciliated columnar cells: move sperm to epididymis
short non-ciliated cells: reabsorb some of testicular fluid
duct surrounded by smooth muscle

71

how does TV section of epididymis appear and why?

appears as multiple transverse sections of same duct
because duct is highly coiled

72

layers of vas deferens?

3 layers of smooth muscle:
1) outer longitudinal
2) circular
3) intermedial

73

cell type of vas deferens?

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

74

are there stereocilia in vas deferens?

beginning part where comes from epididymis, perhaps, but then disappear down tube

75

what is ampulla

forms diverticulum from vas deferens to form seminal vesicle

76

what empties into prostate gland

ejaculatory duct from seminal vesicle & vas deferens > parenchyma of prostate

77

how long is seminal vesicle?

15 cm; coils on itself to be 5-6 cm

78

what is seminal vesicle derived from?

vas deferens

79

what is structure of seminal vesicle?

highly folded mucosa surrounded by 2 layers of smooth muscle

80

epithelial cell type of seminal vesicle?

pseudostratified columnar or simple cuboidal-columnar epithelium
depends on age, hormones

81

how much of seminal fluid do seminal vesicles secrete

70%

82

what does stroma of seminal vesicle have?

smooth muscle, elastic fibers

83

what is composition of seminal vesicle secretion?

thick, creamy, yellowish, alkaline fluid; substances modify sperm activity
1) fructose
2) citric acid & ascorbid acid
3) fibrinogen
4) prostaglandins
5) yellow lipofuscin pigments

84

fructose function in seminal vesicle secretion?

energy source for sperm motility

85

citric and ascorbic acid function in seminal vesicle secretion?

vitamin C

86

fibrinogen function in seminal vesicle secretion?

coagulates semen after ejaculation

87

prostaglandins function in seminal vesicle secretion?

stimulate activity in FR tract

88

yellow lipofuscin pigments function in seminal vesicle secretion?

pale yellow color of semen

89

fluid flow through prostate?

prostate glands > ducts > prostatic urethra

90

what surrounds prostate?

thin fibrous CT capsule

91

prostate zones, % of prostate they occupy?

transition zone: surrounds urethra (5%)
central zone: encircles ejaculatory ducts (20%)
peripheral zone (70%)

92

what is stroma of prostate structure?

fibromuscular

93

corpora amylacae

calcified glycoprotein
number increases with age
prostatic concretions

94

prostatic glands cell type

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

95

stroma cell types

collagen fibers
smooth muscle cells
stromal cells

96

what is benign prostatic hyperplasia

increase in number, size of prostatic glands
increase in amt of stroma
hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells, increased activity of STROMAL CELLS
>4-5cm rather than <4 cm normal prostate

97

where does BPH occur?

transition zone

98

where does prostate cancer occur?

peripheral zone

99

how much of seminal fluid does prostate secretion make up?

30%

100

what does prostate secretion contain?

thin, milky colored fluid:
1) fibrinolysin- liquifies solidified semen
2) proteases, acid phosphatase
3) prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a serine protease - tumor marker
4) citric acid, zinc, electrolytes, lipids

101

what used to be a prostate cancer marker, and no longer definitely is?

psa - prostate-specific antigen
serine-protease tumor marker
psa= 0-4 mg/ml

102

what do bulboureathral glands secrete

mucus-like substance that precedes emission of semen; has lubrication function for passage of semen along urethra
1) galactose
2) sialic acid

103

where are bulbourethral glands?

in skeletal muscle of urogenital diaphragm