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Flashcards in LECT 21 Deck (76):
1

patchy distribution of resources

clumped

2

medicago policarpa
bidens frondosa
rununculus maricatus

adherent fruits

3

or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

mortality

4

is a group of subjects who share a defining characteristic (typically subjects who experienced a common event in a selected time period, such as birth or graduation).

cohort

5

_____ have worldwide ranges

cosmopolitan species

6

Photosynthesis and respiration, nectar production, phenology* adjustments, expenditure of energy stores

physiological cost

7

quicker changes

short generation time

8

Migration other than natural dispersal

invasion

9

illustrate carrying capacity.

logistic growth patterns

10

types of survivorship curves

Type I, II, III

11

are those that emphasize high growth rates, typically exploit less-crowded ecological niches, and produce many offspring, each of which has a relatively low probability of surviving to adulthood

r- selected

12

rafts in form of floating vegetation may also carry species to new land

Rafting events

13

Three major aspects of population ecology

–Population range: area over which a population occurs
–Patterns of spacing within a range
–Changes in sizes of populations over time

14

are factors whose effects on the size or growth of the population vary with the population density. There are many types of density dependent limiting factors such as; availability of food, predation, disease, and migration. However the main factor is the availability of food.

density dependent factors

15

show probability of survival for each cohort

life tables

16

distinct populations that still interact, exchange individuals

metapopulations

17

a situational decision that involves diminishing or losing one quality, quantity or property of a set or design in return for gains in other aspects. In simple terms, a tradeoff is where one thing increases and another must decrease

trade off

18

reproductive growth versus vegetative growth

somatic cost

19

key enviromental challenges

-temp
-water
-sunlight
-soil

20

Responses

-Physiological
-Morphological
-Behavioral

21

three aspects of population ecology

1. range
2. distribution within range (pattern of spacing)
3. changes in populations over time

22

Plant popula'on numbers and/or produc'vity more driven by ___ than anything else

weather

23

describes a specific process, the biological changes an animal or plant makes in response to a change

acclimation

24

diffrent dispersal strategies; seed adaptations for dispersal

Wind blown, adherent and fleshy fruits

25

Spatial segregation of the sexes:

–More male willows in dry channels than females
–More female willows in wet channels than males.

26

____ is higher for female plants

reproductive cost

27

Trade-­‐offs unavoidable

–Resources limited
–“Cost of reproduc'on”: impact on future repro by current repro
–Alternate-­‐bearing in plants

28

states that individuals can maximize lifetime reproductive success by trading-off the allocation of resources to current offspring against the production of future offspring, and their own needs

cost of reproduction

29

is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules. ____is similar to fertility, the natural capability to produce offspring.

fecundity

30

Group of interacting members of a single species

populations

31

The maximum number of individuals of a populaGon that a given environment can sustain indefinitely.

carrying capacity

32

____is the ability of a population of living species to increase under ideal environmental conditions – sufficient food supply, no predators, and a lack of disease. An organism's rate of reproduction and the size of each litter are the primary determining factors for _____

Biotic potential

33

a form of alternate bearing that features produc'on of many seeds by a plant every two or more years in regional synchrony with other plants of the same species –Oak trees, for one, tend to do this –Defense against seed preda'on

masting

34

Morphological response

Phenotypic plasticity

35

reproduce over many seasons (perennial plants)
–Advantages for plants? Drawbacks? Most common climate/habitat?

Iteroparity

36

Traits maximizing number of surviving offspring:

–Longer length of reproduc've life span
–Higher # of young produced each year

37

asclepias syriaca
acer saccharum
Terminalia calamansanai

Wind blown

38

Distribu'ons of the individuals in a popula'on vary according to resource distribu'on and compe''on

Patchiness of resources High levels of compe''on Uniform resource distribu'on ClumpedNear-­‐Uniform or Regular Random Lack of strong interac'ons

39

patchy resources, can apply to species of plants and animals

metapopulation

40

Cost of reproduction reflected by sexual dimorphism
–Woody dioeciousspeices: female is generally ______
–Herbaceous dioecious species: female generally ______ Why

smaller
larger

41

or diagonal curves are an intermediate between Types I and III, where roughly constant mortality rate/survival probability is experienced regardless of age. Some birds and some lizards follow this pattern.

Type II

42

dynamics of species populations and how they interact with the environment

population ecology

43

___ possess relatively stable populations and tend to produce relatively low numbers of offspring; however, individual offspring tend to be quite large in comparison with

k selected
r selected

44

me between birth of individual and birth of its offspring

generation

45

stronger, larger populations replenish weaker ones

source sink metapopulations

46

_______ of range can occur serendipitously: unusual weather condi'ons, currents, altera'on of habitats

natural expansions

47

____ lives one year, more or less. When is the highest mortality? When is highest fecundity? Is that when the most seeds are produced in the population?

Poa annua

48

high levels of competition

Even, near-­‐uniform or regular:

49

a group of interacting individuals of one species at time or place

population

50

The geographic distribu'on of a population

range

51

or concave curves have the greatest mortality (lowest age-specific survival) early in life, with relatively low rates of death (high probability of survival) for those surviving this bottleneck. This type of curve is characteristic of species that produce a large number of offspring (see r/K selection theory). This includes most marine invertebrates. For example, oysters produce millions of eggs, but most larvae die from predation or other causes; those that survive long enough to produce a hard shell live relatively long.

Type III

52

___ are those confined to limited ranges

endemic populations

53

describes plant mortality because of competition in crowded even-aged stands.

self thinning

54

Plants have a variety of life spans, ranging from a month or two to 5000 years. Can be generally classified as ______

annuals, biennials, and perennials.

55

Physiological response

acclimation

56

refers to processes that limit the size of a species' population in a given area

density dependent

57

: uniform resource availability, lack of strong interactions/competition

Random

58

_____ are mostly r-­‐selected, ______ mostly K-­‐selected, though there are weedy perennials and large, rela'vely slowly-­‐developing annuals... •r-­‐selected species oQen the “pioneer” species in succession

annuals
perenials

59

solanum dulcamara
Juniperus Chinensis
rubus fruticosis

Fleshy

60

Cattle egrets thought to have reached the Americas from Africa via a trans-­‐Atlan'c crossing

Natural expansion

61

ability to alter behavior, physiology, and morphology itself

an adaptation

62

is the difference between (births + immigra'on) – (deaths + emigra'on)

biotic potential

63

Rela'onship between N and K and popula'on growth rates

dN = r(K -­‐ N) dt K

64

reproduce once and die (annual plants) –What climates par'cularly favor annual plants? What other situa'ons?

semelparity

65

Defined by density-­‐dependent factors: abundance or lack of necessary resources and amount of harm caused by crowding (disease, parasites)

carrying capacity

66

dis'nct popula'ons that exchange individuals

metapopulations

67

_____ changes over time

Range

68

how populations change over time

Demography and demographics:

69

is a graph showing the number or proportion of individuals surviving to each age for a given species or group (e.g. males or females). Survivorship curves can be constructed for a given cohort (a group of individuals of roughly the same age) based on a life table.

survivorship curve

70

ocean currents carry propagules to other con'nents

oceanic dispersal

71

the differences in appearance between males and females of the same species, such as in colour, shape, size, and structure, that are caused by the inheritance of one or the other sexual pattern in the genetic material.

sexual dimorphism

72

Can populations grow infinetely

NO

73

_____ is mechanism for self-­‐burial

Hygroscopic movement

74

____ and ____ determine population ranges over time

Natural selection and tolerance

75

or convex curves are characterized by high age-specific survival probability in early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in survival in later life. They are typical of species that produce few offspring but care for them well, including humans and many other large mammals.

Type I survivorship curve

76

Behavioral response

Thigmotropism