when dividing the abdomen into 6 sections, you draw the planes:
2 at the midclavicular lines, subcostal plane and transtubercular plane
when dividing the abdomen into 6 sections, they are named from top to bottom, right to left:
right hypochondrium, epigastric, left hypochondrium right flank, umbilical, left flank right groin, pubic, left groin
what is the order of the 3 superficial layers of the abdominal wall?
skin, Camper's fascia, Scarpa's fascia
what is the order of the 3 middle layers of the abdominal wall?
external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominal
the VAN is found between which two layers?
internal oblique and transverse abdominal
what is the order of the 3 deep layers of the abdominal wall?
transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, parietal peritoneum
place in the middle where the tendons merge:
anteriorly, the rectus sheath goes to ____ posteriorly, the rectus sheath goes to ____
the symphysis pubis arcuate line
the rectus abdominus muscles are divided by:
above the umbilicus, how do the oblique muscles cover the abdominal muscles?
anterior obliques go above, transversus abdominus go below, and the internal obliques split into two
2/3ds between the umbilicus and the symphysis pubis, how do the oblique muscles cover the abdominal muscles?
they all run above
where do the inferior epigastric arteries and veins enter into the rectus sheath?
superiorly, most of the blood supply comes from the:
internal thoracic arteries
the internal thoracic arteries branch into the:
superior epigastric and the musculophrenic
inferiorly, most of the blood supply comes from the:
deep circumflex ilial artery, superficial circumflex ilial artery, superficial epigastric artery, inferior epigastric artery
posteriorly, most of the blood supply comes from the:
anterior intercostal arteries come from the:
lymphatics above the umbilicus will go to the:
anterior and posterior axillary lymph nodes
lymphatics below the umbilicus will go to the:
superficial inguinal lymph nodes
the T7 dermatome covers the:
the T10 dermatome covers the:
the L1 dermatome covers the:
the innervation of the abdominal wall comes from the:
anterior rami of the spinal cord
which layer of fascia is continuous from the abdomen into the leg?
Scarpa's fascia merges into the fascia lata of the leg at the ____
line of fusion
what forms the the anterior wall of the inguinal canal?
aponeurosis of the external oblique, and a little bit from the internal oblique
what forms the inferior (floor) of the inguinal canal?
the inguinal ligament, an extension of the external oblique that curls under
what forms the superior (roof) of the inguinal canal?
arches of the internal oblique and transversus abdominus
what forms the posterior boundary of the inguinal canal?
fascia transversalis, reinforced medially by the conjoint tendon (joining of the transversus abdominalis and internal oblique)
what runs through the spermatic cord?
genitofemoral nerve, deferential artery, ductus deferens, testicular artery, pampiniform plexus
the superficial fascia in the abdomen is continuous with the _____ in the testicle
dartos fascia and muscle
the external oblique muscle in the abdomen is continuous with the _____ in the testicle
external spermatic fascia
the internal oblique muscle in the abdomen is continuous with the _____ in the testicle
cremasteric fascia and muscle
the transversus abdominus muscle in the abdomen is continuous with the _____ in the testicle
the transversus fascia in the abdomen is continuous with the _____ in the testicle
internal spermatic fascia
the peritoneum in the abdomen is continuous with the _____ in the testicle
obliterated processus vaginalis
what are the main structure in the female inguinal canal?
round ligament of the uterus and lymphatics from the uterus
what forms Hesselbach's (inguinal) triangle?
rectus abdominus, inferior epigastric vessels, inguinal ligament
a direct hernia goes through:
Hesselbach's triangle, or medial to the epigastric vessels
an indirect hernia goes through:
the deep ring of the inguinal canal, or lateral to the epigastric vessels
intra peritoneal organs all have a ____
mesentary (connection to the posterior wall)
retro peritoneal organs are ______
fixed to the posterior wall, not moving freely in the abdomen
the peritoneum forms folds known as _____
when you first enter the abdomen, you see the ______
in between the stomach and the liver is the _____, which is divided into the ___ and _____
lesser omentum, hepatogastric ligament, hepatoduodenal ligament
the only way to enter the lesser sac is through the:
if you see air between the liver and the diaphragm, it is a ____