Lect 7: Female Repro CASES Flashcards Preview

Unit 7 - Repro & Renal Physiology > Lect 7: Female Repro CASES > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lect 7: Female Repro CASES Deck (17)
Loading flashcards...
1

Menopause
marks the end of a woman’s reproductive cycles

is due to lack of primary ovarian follicles to produce steroids in response to pituitary gonadotrophins

is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis

is associated with hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal atrophy

all of the above

2

Symptoms of menopause are primarily due to

lack of estrogen production by the ovaries

3

menopause is typically diagnosed by

typically diagnosed by a rise in circulating FSH; 17X increase in FSH production bc of lack of estrogen inhibition

4

HRT (HRT=combination estrogen + progesterone)

reduces the symptoms assoc with menopause; is controversial bc of increased cardiovascular, stroke and breast cancer risk, is bring displaced byt the development or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) which mimic the effects of estrogen on bone, but not the detrimental effects on uterus and breast

5

Puberty is characterized by:

pulsatile GnRH secretion initially at night and then also during the day.

6

After puberty hypothalamic secretion can be diminished by

significant weight loss, exercise and stress

7

Polycystic ovary syndrome: A diagnosis of hypothalamic amennorhhea is obtained by

increased FSH and LH release after injection of exogenous GnRH

8

In polycystic ovary syndrome

no dominant follicle emerges and ovulation does not occur

9

PCOS is characterized by

by reduced estrogen production by the granulosa cells, reduced progesterone production by granulosa and thecal cells, continued production of androgen by the thecal cells throughout the cycle→acne & male secondary sex characteristics; irregular or completely absent menses.

10

Treatment for PCOS includes

Treatment options for polycyctic ovarian syndrome include: combination birth control pills (estrogen and progesterone) to restore regular menstrual periods; clomiphene to restore ovulation; 5 alpha reductase inhibitors to block conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone; weight loss to control abnormal blood glucose and diminished insulin sensitivity

11

Endometriosis occurs when

tissue from the uterine endometrium spreads to peritoneal cavity, often around the ovaries

12

theory behind endometriosis is

retrograde menstruation

13

Treatment for endometriosis may involve

oral contraceptive therapy to regulate hormonal balance and pelvic pain, OTC pain relievers as needed; surgical removal of ectopic tissue

14

Ectopic pregnancy: many occur

in the fallopian tube which stretches and may spontaneously rupture. The most dangerous region for rupture that places the patient at risk for massive hemorrhage is: the interstitial area which generally ruptures at 12-16 weeks gestation It is the closest to the blood vessels. The bigger it is the most dangerous it is.

15

treatment of endometriosis may include

o Treatment may involve a single dose of methotrexate to inhibit rapidly dividing cells, especially in early cases, Methotrexate series and laproscopy and salpingectomy; they can still get pregnant because they have another tube

16

Characteristics of an ectopic pregnancy often include:

abnormal fetal development

17

Many ectopic pregnancies occur in the fallopian tube, which stretches and may spontaneously rupture. The most dangerous region for rupture that places the patient at risk for massive hemorrhage is:

the interstitial area which generally ruptures at 12-16 weeks gestation