Lecture 08: Semen Deposition and Transport (Pozor) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 08: Semen Deposition and Transport (Pozor) Deck (32):
1

organs participating in semen formation

epididymis, ampulla, accessory sex glands

2

Where is disseminate prostate located in the ram?

within the pelvic urethra

3

Where does pathology of accessory sex glands occur most often in bulls?

inflammation of vesicular gland

4

NO role in sperm transport

helps develop erection of penis

5

What happens to veins during erection?

become compressed so blood can flow in but not out of penis, causing engorgement

6

Vascular penis and species

Will change in size/length during erection. Stallion

7

Fibroelastic penis with sigmoid flexure BEHIND the scrotum + species

-retractor penis m. relaxes, allowing sigmoid flexure to elongate
-penis elongates but does not widen during erection
-bull

8

species with Fibroelastic penis with sigmoid flexure CRANIAL to the scrotum

boar

9

os penis and species

-has bone
-more vascular tissue in glands and can enlarge
-Has bulbus glandis
-Dog

10

animal with Spines penis

Tom cat

11

emission and assoc. nerve reflex

release of sperm and accessory gland fluid into pelvic urethra. Controlled by thoraco-lumbar reflex which causes smooth muscle contractions

12

ejaculation and assoc. nerve reflex

forceful expulsion of the combined fluids from the urethra. Caused by sacral reflex

13

Detumescence and assoc. nerve group

diminishing of an erection (increased smooth muscle tone in corpus cavernosum/spongiosum; contraction of the retractor penis m.). Caused by sacral sympathetic nerves

14

which species penis is corkscrew shaped?

boar

15

fractions of semen in ruminanrs

1 jet (sperm rich fraction)

16

fractions of semen in equids

~3 jets sperm-rich, ~3 jets gel fraction

17

fractions of semen in swine

1 gel fraction, 1sperm rich fraction, then another gel fraction

18

fractions of semen in canine

sperm-poor fraction --> sperm-rich fraction --> prostatic fraction

19

which species ejaculate directly into the uterus?

boar (also cervix), stallion, dog, camelid

20

which species ejaculate into the vagina?

bull, ram, man, tom cat

21

retrograde loss

sperm loss due to natural outward flow out the vagina

22

major reservoir site for sperm in female

cervix

23

capacitation

Involves the destabilisation of the acrosomal sperm head membrane allowing greater binding between sperm and oocyte. Exposes the sperm so they are ready to penetrate the ova. Occurs in the uterus

24

Fx and causes of uterine contractility

Fx: propels "good" semen up uterine horns and ejects those that can't swim
Causes: oxytocin, prostaglandin (in seminal plasma), estrogen (in seminal plasma)

25

Breeding-induced endometritis

spermatozoa induce inflammation and an influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the uterine lumen

26

What hormone do PMNs release?

prostaglandin (to stimulate myometrial contractions and removal of bacteria causing endometritis)

27

3 major roles of seminal plasma once in female

1) decrease duration of inflammatory response
2) protects live sperm from PMN binding
3) promotes PMN binding with dead sperm

28

Normal site of fertilization in most animals

ampulla of oviduct

29

Sperm in the oviduct

-uterotubal junction = sperm barrier
-isthmus = sperm reservoir
-ampulla = site of fertilization
-infundibulum guides ovum

30

Role of isthmus in sperm storage

-stores sperm
-increases selection of fertile sperm
-prolongs sperm viability
-prevents capacitation

31

Cryopreservation effect on sperm

-may interfere with binding to oviduct
-removal of seminal plasma
-increases incidence of endometritis

32

assisted breeding deposits semen where?

directly in uterus

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