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According to your book: Psychology is the scientific study of the __________of___________.

causes, behavior

1

The comparison in comparative psychology is between __________(usually comparing animals to humans).

species

2

__________is the belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits controlling their movement and thoughts.

Animism

3

___________was a definite Monist Materialist and developed Materialism into a complete system for looking at human behavior.

Mill

4

The idea that differences in sensation/perception relate to differences in the structures (brain areas) that are receiving messages from nerves is known as the ________________________.

Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies

5

______________ autopsied a stroke victim and found that damage to a certain area corresponded to speech deficits, and so now this area is named after him.

Paul Broca

6

Thorndike's observation that good events can "stamp in" good behaviors, while unpleasant events "stamp out" other behaviors is known as the _________ of __________.

Law, Effect

7

____________ emphasized the introspective analysis of sensation and perception to understand the mind's structure, while ____________ tried to understand the mind's processes (operations, not structures), such as perceiving and learning.

Structuralism, Functionalism

8

_____________ states that the only proper subject matter for scientific study in psychology is observable behavior.

Behaviorism

9

Natural selection is the process whereby the environment differentially favors organisms with characteristics that affect ____________ and ____________.

survival, reproduction

10

Charles Darwin was asked to be Captain Robert Fitz Roy's ____________ on The Beagle.

naturalist

11

Some people mistakenly believe that evolution holds that chimpanzees turned into humans. Actually, evolutionary theory suggests that chimpanzees and humans shared a ___________________ at some point in the distant past.

common ancestor

12

Regulatory genes do not code for _____________ but rather govern genes that code for them.

proteins

13

Genes influence our ___________ & ___________ in only one way- by coding for and regulating proteins.

brain, behavior

14

_____________ are alternative forms of same gene for a trait.

Alleles

15

The __________ is the genetic makeup of an organism, while the ___________ is the appearance or behavior of an organism, the outward expression of the genotype, and is influenced by environment.

genotype, phenotype

16

Most traits, like behavior, IQ, or height, are under ___________________ (meaning, these characteristics are affected by more than one gene).

polygenic control

17

_______________are accidental alterations in the DNA code within a single gene, while _________________________ are changes in part of a chromosome or the number of chromosomes.

Mutations, chromosomal aberrations

18

___________________, like hemophilia and color blindness, are carried on the X chromosome, but a second X chromosome can "cover it up" because the trait is recessive.

Sex-linked traits

19

______________ is the sum of the traits inherited from one's parents.

Heredity

20

________________ is the degree to which genes affect a characteristic in a given environment; a statistical measure of the amount of variation in a trait due to naturally occurring genetic differences among individuals in a population.

Heritability

21

The scientific term for identical twins is _____________ twins, and the abbreviation for this term is _____. The scientific name for fraternal is _____________ twins, and the abbreviation for this term is _____.

monozygotic, MZ
dizygotic, DZ

22

When females of an animal species typically mate with more than one male, but males of the species typically mate with only one female, we call this reproductive strategy ____________.

polyandry

23

Across cultures and human history _________ has been a much more common mating strategy than monogamy.

polygyny

24

__________________, caused by competition for mates, is a form of natural selection that can lead to differentially expressed traits in the different sexes of a species.

Sexual selection

25

Kin selection is a type of selection pressure that favors ___________ acts toward individuals with whom one has genes in common.

altruistic