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Flashcards in LECTURE 1 Deck (36):
1

Whee do endocrine, paracrine and autocrine glands secrete hormones?

Endocrine - directly into the blood
Paracrine - hormones act locally
Autocrine - hormones act on cell itself

2

The pituitary gland is made up of 2 lobes - describe the anterior lobe.

What is Rathke's pouch?

What hormones does the adenohypophysis secrete?

Made up of 2 lobes:

Rathke's pouch - embryologically formed, gives rise to adenohypophysis

Adenohypophysis - secretes GH, FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH

3

What is the posterior pituitary gland made up of - what 2 hormones does it store and release

Neurohypophysis.
Stores + releases oxytocin + vasopressin, which are produced by the hypothalamus

4

What causes anterior pituitary hypofunction? Double T Triple I

Tumour - prolactinoma/ GH secreting/ ACTH secreting (Cushing's
Trauma
Inflammation - granulomatous/ autoimmune/ infections
Infarction
iatrogenic

5

Give examples of primary pituitary gland tumours

Adenomas (benign)

6

Describe thyroid gland anatomy

Bilobed
Located at C5-7
Recurrent laryngeal nerve close to posterior lateral lobe

7

The thyroid migrates from the foregut to the anterior neck - what is the remnant called?

Foramen caecum - shallow depression in the midline of the tongue

8

What is the ultimobranchial body

Part of the thyroid - forms in the branchial arteries and fuses with the main bit of the thyroid

Produces C cells (calcitonin producing)

9

Give a hypothyroid condition

HASHIMOTOS
Autoimmune - antibodies attack thyroid cells preventing them from producing thyroid hormones.

10

Give a hyperthyroid conditon

GRAVE's
Autoimmune condition, Ab mimic TSH, causing overproduction of T3 & 4.
TSH is suppressed

11

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

Sweating
Weight loss
Emotional instability
Appetite incr
Tachycardia + tremor
Irregular menstruation
Nervousness
Goitre

12

What are the 3 types of thyroid carcinoma?

Follicular adenoma - painless neck mass

Follicular adenoma - caused by Hurthle cell neoplasm (caused by RAS mutation)

Papillary carcinoma

13

What is Hurthle cell carcinoma?

Common in bone, liver and lungs

14

What causes a papillary carcinoma?

Most common
caused by a citation of RET or NTRK1 (autosomal dominant condition)

15

What other conditions are associated with a papillary carcinoma/

FAP
Cowden's syndrome (benign harmartoma)
Therapeutic irradiation
Radiation exposure

16

Describe the histology of a papillary carcinoma

Ill defined, infiltrative + granular
Some are encapsulated + cystic

17

What is the function of the parathyroid hormone

Controls blood calcium.

PTH release trigged by low calcium

18

What are the 3 types of hyperparathyroidism?

Primary - excessive secretion of PTH (caused by tumour, ageing)

Secondary - low calcium causes gland hyperplasia + incr PTH production

Tertiary - have secondary for prolonged period of time

19

Symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism?

Asymptomatic mostly
High BP
High Ca --> DECR RENAL FUNCTION
Osteoporosis
Psychiatric problems

20

What are the 3 different types of primary hyperparathyroidism tumour types?

SIngle adenoma
Diffuse
Carcinoma

21

What is a parathyroid adenoma?

Encapsulated benign neoplasm of parathyroid cells.
Associated with MEN1 and 2, hyperparathyroidism + jaw tumour

22

Symptoms of parathyroid adenoma?

Hypercalcaemia symptoms
Moans, stones, groans + bones
Kidney stones/ flank pain
Weakness
Breathless
palpitation
Chest pain
Bone ache

23

Adrenal glands function

Secretes:
Cortisol - incr blood sugar + regulates metabolism

Aldosterone - acts in kidneys to conserve Na, excrete K, regulate BP + help water retention

24

What is Cushing's syndrome caused by

Prolonged incr in cortisol
Exogenous cause - overdose of glucocorticoid medication

Endogenous - adrenal cortisol tumours/ hyperplasia/ ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma

25

Signs and Symptoms of Cushing

Hypertension + headache
Hyperglycaemic
Moon face + central obesity
Weak muscles + bones
Sweating
Women have incr hair growth (hirsutism)

26

What is Conn's syndrome

Incr in aldosterone - causes low renin levels

27

Signs and Symptoms of Conn's

High BP + headache
Muscle weakness + spasms
Excessive urination
Cardiac arrhythmia

28

What is Addison's disease

Decr cortisol
Primary - adrenal dysgenesis, autoimmune adrenalitis, TB

Secondary - failure of ACTH secretion

29

Symptoms of Addison's

Triad:
Hyperpigmentation
Postural hypotension
Hyponatreamia

30

What are the two types of adrenal tumours?

Adrenal cortical adenoma - benign
Symptoms - hypertension Cushing's. Causes Conn's

Adrenal cortical carcinoma - malignant
Causes abode mass + symptoms related to hormone excess

31

What's the name of the condition if you have excess aldosterone?

Conn's

32

What's the name of the syndrome if you have excess cortisol?

Cushing's

33

Give examples of catecholamines

Adrenaline
noradrenaline
Dopamine

34

What is pheochromocytoma?

Catecholamine secreting tumour on adrenal medulla

35

What are the symptoms of phaeochromocytoma?

Hypertension
palpitations
Headache
Anxiety
Incr urine catecholamines

36

What are the causes of phaeochromocytomas?

Mostly sporadic
Caused by MEN 2a, 2b
Von Recklinghausen
Von Hippel-Lindau disease