Flashcards in LECTURE 1 Deck (36):
Whee do endocrine, paracrine and autocrine glands secrete hormones?
Endocrine - directly into the blood
Paracrine - hormones act locally
Autocrine - hormones act on cell itself
The pituitary gland is made up of 2 lobes - describe the anterior lobe.
What is Rathke's pouch?
What hormones does the adenohypophysis secrete?
Made up of 2 lobes:
Rathke's pouch - embryologically formed, gives rise to adenohypophysis
Adenohypophysis - secretes GH, FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
What is the posterior pituitary gland made up of - what 2 hormones does it store and release
Stores + releases oxytocin + vasopressin, which are produced by the hypothalamus
What causes anterior pituitary hypofunction? Double T Triple I
Tumour - prolactinoma/ GH secreting/ ACTH secreting (Cushing's
Inflammation - granulomatous/ autoimmune/ infections
Give examples of primary pituitary gland tumours
Describe thyroid gland anatomy
Located at C5-7
Recurrent laryngeal nerve close to posterior lateral lobe
The thyroid migrates from the foregut to the anterior neck - what is the remnant called?
Foramen caecum - shallow depression in the midline of the tongue
What is the ultimobranchial body
Part of the thyroid - forms in the branchial arteries and fuses with the main bit of the thyroid
Produces C cells (calcitonin producing)
Give a hypothyroid condition
Autoimmune - antibodies attack thyroid cells preventing them from producing thyroid hormones.
Give a hyperthyroid conditon
Autoimmune condition, Ab mimic TSH, causing overproduction of T3 & 4.
TSH is suppressed
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism
Tachycardia + tremor
What are the 3 types of thyroid carcinoma?
Follicular adenoma - painless neck mass
Follicular adenoma - caused by Hurthle cell neoplasm (caused by RAS mutation)
What is Hurthle cell carcinoma?
Common in bone, liver and lungs
What causes a papillary carcinoma?
caused by a citation of RET or NTRK1 (autosomal dominant condition)
What other conditions are associated with a papillary carcinoma/
Cowden's syndrome (benign harmartoma)
Describe the histology of a papillary carcinoma
Ill defined, infiltrative + granular
Some are encapsulated + cystic
What is the function of the parathyroid hormone
Controls blood calcium.
PTH release trigged by low calcium
What are the 3 types of hyperparathyroidism?
Primary - excessive secretion of PTH (caused by tumour, ageing)
Secondary - low calcium causes gland hyperplasia + incr PTH production
Tertiary - have secondary for prolonged period of time
Symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism?
High Ca --> DECR RENAL FUNCTION
What are the 3 different types of primary hyperparathyroidism tumour types?
What is a parathyroid adenoma?
Encapsulated benign neoplasm of parathyroid cells.
Associated with MEN1 and 2, hyperparathyroidism + jaw tumour
Symptoms of parathyroid adenoma?
Moans, stones, groans + bones
Kidney stones/ flank pain
Adrenal glands function
Cortisol - incr blood sugar + regulates metabolism
Aldosterone - acts in kidneys to conserve Na, excrete K, regulate BP + help water retention
What is Cushing's syndrome caused by
Prolonged incr in cortisol
Exogenous cause - overdose of glucocorticoid medication
Endogenous - adrenal cortisol tumours/ hyperplasia/ ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma
Signs and Symptoms of Cushing
Hypertension + headache
Moon face + central obesity
Weak muscles + bones
Women have incr hair growth (hirsutism)
What is Conn's syndrome
Incr in aldosterone - causes low renin levels
Signs and Symptoms of Conn's
High BP + headache
Muscle weakness + spasms
What is Addison's disease
Primary - adrenal dysgenesis, autoimmune adrenalitis, TB
Secondary - failure of ACTH secretion
Symptoms of Addison's
What are the two types of adrenal tumours?
Adrenal cortical adenoma - benign
Symptoms - hypertension Cushing's. Causes Conn's
Adrenal cortical carcinoma - malignant
Causes abode mass + symptoms related to hormone excess
What's the name of the condition if you have excess aldosterone?
What's the name of the syndrome if you have excess cortisol?
Give examples of catecholamines
What is pheochromocytoma?
Catecholamine secreting tumour on adrenal medulla
What are the symptoms of phaeochromocytoma?
Incr urine catecholamines