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1

define organic chemistry

study of carbon compounds

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define organic compound

An organic compound
is a compound made from carbon and hydrogen atoms
may also contain other nonmetals such as oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, or a halogen
is often found in common products such as gasoline, medicines, shampoos, plastics, and perfumes

The formulas of organic compounds are written with carbon first, followed by hydrogen, and then any other elements.
Organic compounds typically
have covalent bonds
have low melting and boiling points
are flammable and undergo combustion
are not soluble in water

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inorganic

Many inorganic compounds have high melting and boiling points.

Inorganic compounds that are ionic are usually soluble in water, and most do not burn in air.

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why is polar and non polar important

polar dissolves polar, nonpolar dissolves non polar

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characteristics of compounds that are inorganic vs organic

high melting point: inorganic
not soluble in water:organic
formla ch3, ch2, ch3organic
has formula mgcl2: inorganic
burns easily in air: organic
covaley bonds:organic

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hydrocarbons

organic cmpounds that contain only carbon and hydroen

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saturated hydrocarbons

contain only single bonds.

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what do we saturate with in saturated hydrocarbons?

use hydrogen.

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methane

ch4 carbon forms four covalen bonds to hydrgoen. mehthane is tetrahedra and has bond angles of 109 degrees

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ehtane

c2h6 each tetrahedran carbon forms three covalen bonds to hydrogen and one to other carbon

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IUPAC

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTS

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alkanes

hydrocrabons contain ionly c-c and c-h bonds
formed by continous chain of carbon atoms
named using ipuac system.
have names that in in ane

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prefixes for carbon compounds

1 meth
2 eth
3 prop
4 but

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condesned structural formulas

each carbon atom and its bonds written in order. ie h3c-ch2-ch2-ch2 etc. which its moledular formula is ch12 or something depending.

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alkanes are written in formulas that are

expanded- to shwo each bond
or condensed- to show each carbon atom and its attached ydrogen atoms.

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writing skeltal formulas

molecular formulas-which give the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms
skeltal formulas-which show the carbon skelton ini which carbon atoms are represented at the end of each line or at each corner. done in zigzag fashion because linking 4 carbons creates bond in form of zigzag.

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carbon atoms in chain

connedted by single c-c- bonds can rotate, so groups attached to each carbon move freely about the c-c bond
can have different arrangements known as conformations

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alkane representations

represented as molecular formula, ball and stick model, exanpanded structurual, condesned strucural, skeltal formula. all valid.

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alkane representations

represented as molecular formula, ball and stick model, exanpanded structurual, condesned strucural, skeltal formula. all valid.

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ethan econdsned struutral formula

ch3, ch3

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heptane condensed structural formula

ch3-ch2 (five times- ch3.

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cycloalkanes

are cylic alkanes have two fewer hydrogen atoms thaan the open chain form
are amed by using the prefix cyclo before the name of the alkane chain iwith teh same number of carbon atoms. are closed formed chains in triangles, squres, pentagon, hexagon.

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stuctural isomers

have same molecular formula with a different arragnemtn of atoms. have same number of atoms bondedin a different order. butane ahas 2 structural isomers, a straight chain and branched chain.

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SUBSTITUTNETS

are atoms or gorups of atmos attahched to carbon chain and inclued alkul and halo groups

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alkyl groups

group fo carbon atoms attached to carbon chains
namedin the iupac systen with an yl ending

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halo substituents

halogen atoms attached to carbon chain
named in the iupac system as fluoro, chloro, bromo. or iodo.

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halo substituents

halogen atoms attached to carbon chain
named in the iupac system as fluoro, chloro, bromo. or iodo.

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naming alkanes

1. write the lakane name for the longest chain of carbon atoms
2. number the carbon atoms startform the end nearer a
3.??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

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when one substituent is attached to a carbon atom inai cycloalkane

name of substituent is plaened in fron of the cycloalkane
no number is need ed for a single akyl group?????????

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haloalkanes

are alkanes witha halogen atom that repla??????????????????????????????????????

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properties of alkanes

with one to four carbosn are gases at room temp and ware widely used as heating fuels. methane, ethane, propane, butane, butane has for carbons:
alkanes with five to eight carbons are highl volatine liquids at room temp, making them useful as fuels. pentane, hexane, heptane, octane. octane has eight carbons.

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alklanes

are nonpolar, insoluble in water, less dense than water, flammable in air, found in crude oil

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oil spills

in april 2010, an explosion on an oi-drilling rig in the gulf of mexico caused largest oil spill in u.s. history, spilling at its maxiumum about 10 million liters per day
cleaning up an oil spill includes:
mechanical

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alkene

has at least one double bond in carbon skeleton, alkyne

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alkyne

has trip bond in carbon skeleton

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alkenes and alkkys

are familiy of hydrocarbons taht contain 2 or tripple bonds, are called unstarate hydrocarbons, cuz htey do not contia the maximum number of hydrgoen atoms
react with hydrogen gas to increase the number of hyrogen atoms and become alkanes.

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alkenes

contai one or more arbon -carbon double bonds

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ethene

more commonly called ethylne, an importan plant hormone invovled in promotint the ripenig of fruit

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alkynes

contain onre or more carb-carbon triple bonds. in ethyne two carbon are connected by triple bond. each carbon is also bonded to one h atom.

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naming alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes

using alkane name with sane umber of carbon atoms, replace ane with ene
1 name the longest arbon chain that contains the double or triple bond
number the carbon chain startf rom the end nearer the double or triple bond
give locatiion

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cycloalkenes

have double bodn within a ring strucure

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in an alkene

the double bond is ridigd and does not rotate, holds attached grouops in fixed positions, makes cis-trans isomers posssible when two diff groups are atttached to the carbon atoms on each side of the double bond.

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in alkesn and alkynes

double and trip bonds are very reactive adding h-h ad h-oh to the carbons in the doulb eor triple bond

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adding h2 to doubles bonds in vegetable oils

highher melting points..

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hydration reactions

an alkene reacts with h-oh to frm an alc
a hydrogen h- from wate forms a bond with carbon atom in the double bond with more hydrogen atom
the -oh from water forms a bond with second atom in dboule bond

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in 1825

michael faraday isolated a hydrocarbon called benzene, which consists of a six-carbon ring with alternating double bonds and has molecular formula c6h6.

47

benzene

is an aromatic compound
a ring of six c atoms
flatt ring strucutre drawn with 3 alternating double bonds