Lecture 1 & 2 - Introduction to Marine Ecosystems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 & 2 - Introduction to Marine Ecosystems Deck (48):
1

Explain the earth with regards to oceanic life at 3.9 BBP

Violent unstable earth covered almost entirely by water, high level of UV light. Atmosphere consisted of reducing gases such as Carbon Monoxide, Ammonia but no Oxygen

2

What life formed 3.9 BBP

The harsh environment saw the development of Cynobacteria

3

What occurred at 2.5 BBP

Continents formed, oxygen levels increased due to high activity of first primary producers and endosymbosis formed the first eukaryotes --> multi-cellular organisms started to form

4

Define Endosymbiosis

This is when one cell "engulfs" another cell, the engulfed cell forms a "factory" this is to say it becomes specialized such a chloroplast.

5

What occurred at 0.57 BBP (give an example too)

The first organisms with primitive skeletons such as Anomalocaris - first predators

6

What is the Burgess Shales in Canada

These are fossil records of the earliest form of multicellular organisms at around 530 MBP, these organisms had calcium carbonate of calcium phosphate exoskeletons

7

What is the origins of life?

RNA, self replicating chains of chemical compounds such as amino acids and proteins from geothermal energy in hot rocks and hydrothermal energy

8

What proved the formation of self replicating compounds was possible?

L. Miller and C. Urey in 1953, with there simple experiment they showed they managed to create self replicating chemical compounds

9

What is the Endosymbiot thoery

This is the theory that bacteria and cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) where englufed (through endosymbosis) and formed the first mitochondria and cholorplasts

10

Explain the structure and importance of a Stromatolites

These are still found in the world today of the coast of AUS, they consist of cyanobacteria, heterotophic bacteria, small sized sediment particles, calcuim carbonate and calcium phosphate precipitated from the sea water by bacteria

11

How old are the oldest stromatolites

3.7 MBP

12

List the seven fundemental properties of water which are key to life in the oceans

High specific heat capacity
Surface tension
Salinity
Oxygen content
Carbon Dioxide
Density
Light

13

Explain the high specific heat capacity of water

This is real high! almost 25x more than air, which means it takes more heat to get a change of just 1 degree C, making a stable environment

14

Explain surface tension of water

This is key for organisms but also key on a cellular level for cellular processes

15

Explain the O2 content of the water

This is pretty low, 50x less than air which make conditions ideal for photosynthesis

16

Explain the CO2 content of water

This is where 98% of the worlds CO2 is stored which means its just fantastic news for photosynthesis!

17

Density in water

Can range from 1 to 1.02 g/cm which provides support for organism (which is why whales can explode on land hah)

18

Explain light

It varies with depth! the eupotic zone ends where only 1% of penetrated light remains, also though red light is absorbed preferentially due to high penetration (what makes seaweeds brown / red)

19

Explain the depth zones of the Ocean (4) on average

0-200 Euphotic Zone
200 - 1000 Aphotic Zone
ALL IN THE 0-1000 palegic zone
1000-4000 Bathyplagic

20

Explain salinity in the water

varies from 0 to 35, sometimes over, creates niche

21

What are the zones of the ocean floor from top to bottom (5)

Benthic zone (extreme enviroment)
Bathyal Zone
Abyssal Zone
Hadal Zone
Trench (extreme enviroment)

22

Define pelagic

Open ocean water coloum

23

Define benthic

Associated with bottom substrate, i.e. sea floor

24

Define Protozoa

Single celled animals

25

Define Metazoa

Multi celled organism

26

What are the 5 functional groups of the Pelagic zone

Viruses
Bacteria
Phyotoplankton
zooplankton
Nekton

27

Tell me about Viruses in the Pelagic zone!

0.02 to 0.2µm, regulate through depth

28

Tell me about Bacteria in Pelagic zone :)

10^3 to 10^5 cells per ml. These comes in two forms Rods or Cocci, are are POM (particle) and DOM (disolved matter) recyclers, grazed upon by nanoplankton. Anoxic Processes

29

What can Pytoplankton and zooplankton not do that nekton can

Swim against the current! the just go with the flow

30

Little information on Phytoplankton and the four types!

These are primary producers that cannot swim against the current and come in four types:
Cyanobacteria
Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Other - coccolithophorids, prymnesiopythes

31

Get some info out on Cyanobacteria

These contain a range of pigments which are productive at different wave lengths which are
Chlorophyll a
Phycobilins
B-carotene
xanthophylls

32

Tell me about Diatoms

These have pigments:
chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll c (unique to diatoms)
B-carotene
xanthophylls
They are unicelluar but may form chains and reproduce through binary fission and sexual reproduction at critical size and stress levels, species spore and reproduce during adverse conditions

33

Information on Dinoflagellates

Have a flagella! (tiny tail used to sorta guide movement) may have thick cellulose plates can be Auto, hetro and mixotrophic and associated with red tides (blooms)

34

The other types of phyotoplankton, give a bit of info

Coccolithophorids - unicellular nano plankton, calcareous plates and may have 2 flagella
Prymnesiophytes - unicellular or colonial, 1 flagella

35

What are the 5 types of zooplankton!

Protoza
Cnidarians
Ctenophore
Mollusca
Arthropoda

(eat other zooplankton and phyotoplankton

36

What are the five types of protoza (zooplankton) and some characteristics

Protoza are all single-celled

Heterotrophic Dinoflagellates - form coastal swams
Zooflagellates - these account for 80% of nanoplankton
Foraminifera - have a calcerous shell with rhizopodia to trap bacteria and algea
Radiolaria - have a silcate capsule feed on bacteria and algea
Tintinnids - ciliate protozoa, appearance of a bowl vase or tube

37

Information on Cnidarians (zooplankton)

Medusaea, tentacles with nematocysts (stinging cell) these are jelly fish! colonial cells with some specialised. also included are corals (not pelagic zone, benthic )

38

information on Ctenophorea

Similar to cindarians but have no nematocysts

39

Information on Mollusca

These have shells - gastropoda, snails! and come in two forms heteropods and pteropods

40

Information on Arthropoda

These are like krill shrimp and have many different forms (but dont think we are gonna need to know for the exam)

41

What are nekton and the four types!

These are pelagic spp. capable of swimming against the current there are four types
Palagic Fishys (key for industry)
Cephalopods (squid)
Marine Reptiles (turtles)
Marine Mammals (whales)
Pelagic sea birds

42

What are the two ways in which a food web can be controlled!

Bottom up control OR Tropic cascade

But in the marine environment it can very often be a mix of the two

43

What is bottom up control?

Resource dependant growth, in marine systems this is normally using the availability of the limiting nutrient, in most cases nitrogen.

44

What is Trophic cascade

This is top down control from grazing and predation

45

What is the Monod Equation

Dont need to know the excat maths, but is essentially as the amount of limiting nutrient increases as does the growth throughout tropic levels, but growth rates will become "saturated" meaning it levels off. Not really too smart

46

Draw a classic food web involving the microbial food web

Cant do it on here but should include (classic)
Piscivores
Planktivors
Zooplankton
Phyotoplankton
AND as well should include (microbial):
Bacteria
DOM
Nutrients

47

Explain coastal upwelling and give an example

Upwelling water rich in nutrients comes to surface where light levels are high giving a huge level of primary productivity such as Benguela upwelling, Namibia

48

The Benthic Zone! tell me about it

These are a wide range of habitats which may be coastal or deep sea most of which have their own lectures or the key ones do anyways