Lecture 1: An Evolutionary Approach to Animal Behaviour Flashcards Preview

APS209 Animal Behaviour > Lecture 1: An Evolutionary Approach to Animal Behaviour > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1: An Evolutionary Approach to Animal Behaviour Deck (23):
1

two types of question you get

Proximate AND Ultimate

2

who was tinbergen?

Man who created four questions to ask animal behaviour, 2 How, 2 Why

3

proximate =why/how?

HOW

4

ultimate =why/how?

WHY

5

tinbergens four questions

PROXIMATE (how)
-Causation (mechanism)
-Development (Ontogeny)

ULTIMATE (why)
-Evolution (phylogeny)
-Function (selection)

6

example tinbergen's four questions: Squirrel

-red cache nuts in piles ono ground
-grey hide them but forget where they are
-red access food source in winter/early spring
-4 Questions:
--what causes them to store the nuts?
--how did the behaviour develop over the early life stages of the squirrel?
--evolutionary history of action?
--whats the selective pressure which maintains the behaviour?

7

example tinbergen's four questions: eye spots on Moths

-emperor moth has eye spots on all 4 wings
-eyed hawk moth only has them on hide wings

-presence of predator stimulate sensory system, promotes reaction in motor system (flashing of eye spots)
-development determined by insect genes and interaction genes have with environment
---> Form mechanism (PROXIMATE) answer HOW

-survival value
-evolutionary history
---> ULTIMATE answers Why

8

proximate and ultimate answers are often referred to as the

the levels of analysis

9

proximate causes include

HOW
-Genetic-development mechanisms
-Sensoy-motor mechanisms

10

Ultimate causes include

WHY
-Historical pathways leading to a current behavioural trait
-selective processes shaping the history of a behavioural trait

11

Tinbergen Mechanistic question: Orientation in Bee Wolves

-actually wasps
-female bee wolf provision her underground nest with honey bees. She covers over the entrance before she goes hunting.
-HOW DOES SHE FIND HER NEST AFTER HUNTING???
--on flying away, she circles presumably to memorise landmarks near the entrance
---he set pine cones in obvious pattern around nest, he then moved them to confuse bee
-after hunting, she couldn't find the nest. she went to centre of pine cones

12

Tinbergen functional question: Egg shell removal by parent birds

-adult birds remove broken egg shells away from nest
-HE THOUGHT THEY DID THIS TO DETER PREDATORS
-set up fake gull nests, with broken egg shell different distances from nest
--closer broken egg shell from nest, greater chance nest predation by crows

13

experiment which ties ultimate & proximate ideas together: Comma butterfly & Peacock butterfly

-both spp have cryptic under wings, to appear like wings.
-if disturbed during resting, comma keeps wings close, peacock flashes bright wings and creates hissing noise by rubbing wings

14

Valiln A et al paper. peacock have 2 ways to scare predators:

eyespots and hissing sounds,
carried out 6 experiments, 3 manipulations, 3 controls --> removed eyespots, removed hissing, removed eye spots and hissing (both)
---> results = eyespots!, reason for deterring predators SO WHY BOTHER TO PRODUCE HISS?? might protect against bats?

15

are all spots for scaring predators?

NO,
Meadow Brown, Maniola jurtina. Small eye spots near the wing tips are not to scare predators. Instead they provide a non-vital target

16

4 Steps in the Scientific Method:

1) Ask a QUESTION about an observed behaviour
2) Establish a HYPOTHESIS to potentially explain what has been seen
3) Set up PREDICTIONS based on the hypothesis
4) TEST these predictions by gathering appropriate data (field observations, experiments etc)
(QHPT)

17

Anting:

behaviour where a bird (blue jay) disturbs an ant mound with its feet or breasts, ants climb onto body and spray formic acid

18

2 hypothesis for why birds engage in anting behaviour

H1 = kills parasites in the feathers (feather lice)
H2 = makes ants more palatable (less formic acid)

19

how we can identify the evolutionary history of behaviours: 4 subfamilies of Apidae bees

-Apinae
-Meliponinae
-Bombinae
-Euglossinae

20

how we can identify the evolutionary history of behaviours: The aping, bombinate and meliponiae are

EUSOCIAL, live together in large colonies, only few individuals reproduce others take upon other roles
-care for young together

21

how we can identify the evolutionary history of behaviours: Euglossinae are

solitary, live on their own

22

how we can identify the evolutionary history of behaviours: apinae and meliponinae are ___ forming and also are known for ___

-swarm forming (honey and stingless bees)
- Nectar transfer (forager -> receiver)

23

how we can identify the evolutionary history of behaviours: Apidae bees phylogenic tree

Xylocopinae used to root tree
different options:
-1 origin of eusociality
-2 separate origins of swarming and nectar passing??
OR
-1 origin eusociality
- 1 single origin of swarming and nectar passing