Lecture 1 - Introduction to Psychological Testing (Catherine) Flashcards Preview

z. Psychological Testing and Assessment > Lecture 1 - Introduction to Psychological Testing (Catherine) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Introduction to Psychological Testing (Catherine) Deck (14):
1

What is Psychological testing & assessment?

In essence, psychological testing involves measurement, and psychological testing involves evaluation

2

What is the main objective of psychological testing and how does it differ from psychological assessment?

Psychological testing aims to gauge some ability or attribute numerically; whereas psychological assessment aims to answer a referral question, solve a problem or arrive at a decision.

3

What is the main process of psychological testing and how does it differ from psychological assessment?

Testing is either individual or group, tester tallies responses rather than seeking underlying meaning.
Whereas, assessment is generally individualised, consideration given to how an individual processes, not simply the results/scores.

4

What is the main role of the evaluator in psychological testing and how does it differ from psychological assessment?

In testing it is possible to substitute evaluators with no negative impact; whereas in assessment the assessor is key in the selection of the tests, other tools of evaluation and drawing conclusions from the entire evaluation.

5

What is the main skill of the evaluator in psychological testing and how does it differ from psychological assessment?

Testing requires technician-like skills for administration, scoring & interpretation. Whereas, in assessment, an educated selection of tools of evaluation, evaluation skills & thoughtful integration of the data is required.

6

What is the main outcome in psychological testing and how does it differ from psychological assessment?

Testing typically yields a score or series of scores; whereas in assessment, there is a logical problem-solving approach to answer a referral question.

7

Name the 7 assumptions of Psychological Testing

Psychological Traits & States exist & can be quantified & measured
-Test-related behaviour predicts non-test-related behaviour
-Tests & Measures have strengths & weaknesses
-Error is part of the measurement process
-Testing & Assessment can be fair and unbiased and Benefits society

8

Name the 3 keys points related to Assumption 1 - that psychological traits and states exist

-Psychological traits are stable & distinctive patterns of behaviour that characterise an individual & his/her reactions to the environment
-Psychological states are also distinguishable, though less enduring
-Assumption 1 applies with administration & test construction

9

What are the key points related to Assumption 2 - that Psychological Traits & States can be Quantified & Measured?

-Assumption 2 is rarely tested
-Focus instead in on the development of test instruments
-Attention is focused on emotional states, psychological traits of intelligence & personality
-There are multiple theories of intelligence & of personality

10

What are the key points related to Assumption 3 - that Test-Related Behaviour predicts Non-Test-Related-Behaviour?

-A tests objective is to provide an indication of a test-taker's behaviour; i.e. 'predictive validity' -There are 2 types of performance tests: Maximum-Performance tests & Typical-Performance Tests

11

What are the Main Aspects of Assumption 4, which states that Tests have Strengths and Weaknesses?

-Psychological tests are imperfect measures of psychological attributes -Test Developers aim to maximise the strengths & minimise the weaknesses of psychological testing -Two KEY characteristics of tests that MUST be considered when constructing a test are: reliability & validity

12

What are the Main Aspects of Assumption 5, which states that Various Sources of Error are part of the Measurement Process?

-Measurement error refers to the idea that variables other than those measured by the test influence test performance
-To understand the concept of error, it is necessary to understand reliability & validity
-Test-taker scores contain the True Score & Error (this is Classical Test Theory)

13

What are the Main Aspects of Assumption 6, which states that Testing and Assessment can be conducted in an Unbiased Manner?

-Test Publishers strive to develop tests which are fair by ensuring they accord with key ethical principles and ethical codes- -There are 3 Theoretical perspectives on Ethics:
*Deontological (Duty Based)
*Consequentialist (Outcome Based)
* Personality Based (Virtue Ethics)

14

What are the Main Aspects of Assumption 7, which states that Testing and Assessment benefits society?

Simply that Testing and Assessment benefits society
**Although testing and assessment may seem undesirable at times, do the benefits of testing outweigh the costs?

**An historical example of the SOCIAL COSTS of testing
*H. H. Goddard and the menace of the feeble minded 15
- Popularised the Frenchman Albert Binet’s intelligence scale
- Source of the descriptor “moron” – below average IQ “high grade defectives”
- Wanted to prevent the entry of the feeble minded into the US
- Application of this test led Goddard to believe that the majority of refugees arriving to America from Eastern and Southern Europe were “morons”/feeble- minded

**An historical example of the SOCIAL BENEFITS of testing
*Ability and the emergence of meritocracy
- Awarding jobs and rewarding people on the basis of ability is historically novel
- E.g.,Samuel Pepys, 1st person in the 1660s,was a middle-class Briton who was among 27 the first officials to make his way up in government by virtue of the fact that he was smart.