Lecture 1 - Malignant Lung pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Malignant Lung pathology Deck (9):
1

What are the four types of primary malignant tumours in the lung/

o Squamous cell carcinoma
o Small cell carcinoma
o Adenocarcinoma (most common)
o Large cell undifferentiated carcinoma

2

What are the 3 types of secondary malignant tumours in the lung/

Sarcomas

Melanomas

Lymphomas

3

What are the other type of less common primary malignant tumours

Carcinoid tumours - low grade. Good prognosis

Malignant mesenchymal tumours. Rare. E.g. synovial sarcomas

Primary lung lymphomas - HIV/AIDS

4

How do secondary tumours present?

Where do they metastasis from?

Multiple discrete nodules

Breast, GI tract, kidney

5

What are the causes of malignant cancer?

Tobacco smoking. 1 pack year = 20 cigarettes

Job hazards - asbestos

Radiation

Lung fibrosis e.g. pulmonary fibrosis

Genetic mutations e.g. EGFR, KRAS, ALK

6

How long between asbestos exposure + lung cancer?

20 years

7

What are the symptoms of lung cancer?

If the tumour is localised to the lung, symptoms are:
Haemoptysis - tumour in proximal airways causing bleeding

Breathless/ pneumonia like symptoms - tumour blocks airways

If tumour spreads to surrounding structures:
Pain - chest wall
Hoarseness - recurrent laryngeal nerve
Dysphagia - oesophagus

If the tumour has metastasised from elsewhere:
Bone - fractures
Brain - seizures
Lymph nodes - lumps in neck

Non specific features
Weight loss + lethargy
Hyponatraemia
Hypokalaemia
Hyper calcaemia
Finger clubbing

8

What is lymphangitis carcinomatosa

lung tumour that spreads to lymph nodes

9

How to manage lung cancer?

Early stage diagnosis - surgery/ radiotherapy

Advanced stage - chemo/ palliative radiotherapy

New treatments - targeted depending on tumour genetics e.g. EGFR mutation

Immune checkpoint inhibitor PDL-1