Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Malignant Lung pathology Deck (9):
What are the four types of primary malignant tumours in the lung/
o Squamous cell carcinoma
o Small cell carcinoma
o Adenocarcinoma (most common)
o Large cell undifferentiated carcinoma
What are the 3 types of secondary malignant tumours in the lung/
What are the other type of less common primary malignant tumours
Carcinoid tumours - low grade. Good prognosis
Malignant mesenchymal tumours. Rare. E.g. synovial sarcomas
Primary lung lymphomas - HIV/AIDS
How do secondary tumours present?
Where do they metastasis from?
Multiple discrete nodules
Breast, GI tract, kidney
What are the causes of malignant cancer?
Tobacco smoking. 1 pack year = 20 cigarettes
Job hazards - asbestos
Lung fibrosis e.g. pulmonary fibrosis
Genetic mutations e.g. EGFR, KRAS, ALK
How long between asbestos exposure + lung cancer?
What are the symptoms of lung cancer?
If the tumour is localised to the lung, symptoms are:
Haemoptysis - tumour in proximal airways causing bleeding
Breathless/ pneumonia like symptoms - tumour blocks airways
If tumour spreads to surrounding structures:
Pain - chest wall
Hoarseness - recurrent laryngeal nerve
Dysphagia - oesophagus
If the tumour has metastasised from elsewhere:
Bone - fractures
Brain - seizures
Lymph nodes - lumps in neck
Non specific features
Weight loss + lethargy
What is lymphangitis carcinomatosa
lung tumour that spreads to lymph nodes