Flashcards in Lecture 1 Material Deck (69):
Cells make up ___. Tissues make up ____, Organs make up _____. Organ systems make up the body
tissues, organs , organ systems
Maintenance of a stable internal environment so that the complex chemical reactions of life can take place
Examples of complex reactions in the body
- Enzyme reactions
- DNA replication/gene expression
- cellular signals
How is homeostasis maintained
through communication , control and negative feedback
Homeostasis maintains levels of
- Salt concentration
- nutrient levels
- dissolved gases
- protein distribution
Examples of negative feedback systems
- Body temperature
- Blood pressure
- blood sugar
- production of red blood cells
Square- Cube Law
- Sizing principle
- object increases function through the square linearly
- object increases its volume through cube of diameter
What fundamental process does the square cube law help to explain
Six most common elements found in the body
Elements used for cellular signaling
Example of a polar covalent bond
Hydrogen bonding gives water properties such as
- being liquid state in a wide temp range
- good solvent
- polar covalent bonds
- large molecule interaction
- necessary for life
Fatty acids are the monomers for
- raw material for co-factors and hormones
Amino acids are the monomers for
- energy sources
- ion channels
monosaccarides and polysaccarides are the monomers for
short term energy storage,
Lipids have ____ interactions in aqueous solutions
Amino acids are linked with what type of bond
When the N terminal is bonded to the C terminal in an amino acid, what is the reaction called ?
True or false, carbohydrates are less soluble than lipids.
False, carbohydrates are more soluble because they are more polar
Nucleotides are the monomers of
DNA and RNA
What is the function of nucleotides ?
- compose DNA and RNA
- intracellular signaling agents
What are the 3 elements that make up nucleic acids ?
- A nitrogenous base ( A T C G )
- A sugar ( deoxyribose or ribose
- 1, 3 phosphate group
What are the two classes of nitrogenous bases ?
Purines and Pyrimidines
Which nitrogenous bases are purines ?
Adenine and Guanine
The base is indole
Which nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines ?
Cytosine, Uracil and Thymine
the base is imidazole
How can cAMP be created from ribose
The phosphate group in AMP can bond to ribose
What is cAMP
Important second messenger molecule used for intracellular signaling especially for changes outside of the cell coming in
What is ATP
Energy currency of the cell . GTP is also used as energy currency
Why is there such high energy in phosphate- phospate bonds ?
There is charge - charge repulsion between PO4 groups resulting in instability
What is the main storage form of a polysaccharide in animal tissue ?
What is the main storage form of polysaccharides in plants ?
starch and cellulose
Which is stiffer , DNA or RNA and why ?
DNA is stiffer because of the stable double helix and the tertiary structure . This makes it a strong information medium because of the hydrogen bonding between the bases.
Why does RNA act more like a protein ?
RNA is not double stranded making it less stable than DNA but less stiff allowing for more movement
Why is the double bond character significant in peptide bonds?
It prevents rotation adding stability in the bonds .
Amino side chains can be
polar , nonpolar, acidic , basic , charged , uncharged
What are the levels of protein structure ?
Primary, secondary, tertiary, Quaternary
A chain of amino acid sequences
What are the two forms of secondary structure ?
Alpha helix and beta sheet
To create an alpha helix , what kind of side chains are needed ?
Side chains that are either large, polar or charged.
In a beta sheet , hydrogen bonds can be aligned in either a ____ or _____ manner
parallel or anti -parallel
This structure is defined as the overall shape of the side chain protein
The structure that contains multiple protein structures
A type of protein that controls specificity and direction of biochemical reactions
Enzymes reduce the _____ of reactions
Energy needed to start a reaction
Why do enzymes have specificity ?
Bonding of enzymes is caused by having a certain shape and active site
Exergonic reactions that break down material to release energy
Endergonicc reactions that synthesize material
Types of end product inhibition
- Non- competitive inhibition
- Allosteric inhibition
The binding of a ligand such as cAMP regulates an inhibitor which prevents binding. If the cAMP does not bind, there is a change in conformation which allows for binding
The rate of the reaction depends on the concentration of
reactants, products, and the enzyme ( ) mass action
What are other factors that can influence the rate of a reaction.
What are two main types of proteins ?
- Structural proteins
A class of proteins that support the structure of the cell
Examples of structural proteins
- Intermediate filaments
Most fatty acids are present in the ____ form
triglycerides or phospholipids
Why are phospholipids crucial to cell strucuture ?
they contribute to the structure of the extracellular matrix for transportation
Fick's Law of Diffusion
Concentration moves from high to low
Diffusion of water (Passive)
Two types of diffusion
active and passive
Diffusion that requires an input of energy to move ions against a concentration gradient
Diffusion that requires no input f energy as ions move with their concentration gradient
Greater solute concentration outside of the cell than inside of the cell . Water will leave the cell resulting in lysing.
Greater solute concentration inside the cell than the outside. Water will enter the cell resulting in the cell becoming full and bursting