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Flashcards in Lecture 1 Material Deck (69):
1

Cells make up ___. Tissues make up ____, Organs make up _____. Organ systems make up the body

tissues, organs , organ systems

2

Homeostasis

Maintenance of a stable internal environment so that the complex chemical reactions of life can take place

3

Examples of complex reactions in the body

- Enzyme reactions
- DNA replication/gene expression
- cellular signals

4

How is homeostasis maintained

through communication , control and negative feedback

5

Homeostasis maintains levels of

- pH
- Salt concentration
- nutrient levels
- dissolved gases
- temperature
- protein distribution

6

Examples of negative feedback systems

- Body temperature
- Blood pressure
- Hunger
- blood sugar
- production of red blood cells

7

Square- Cube Law

- Sizing principle
- object increases function through the square linearly
- object increases its volume through cube of diameter

8

What fundamental process does the square cube law help to explain

- diffusion
- multicellularity

9

Six most common elements found in the body

- carbon
- hydrogen
- oxygen
- nitrogen
- phosphorous
- sulfur

10

Elements used for cellular signaling

-Cl
- Na
- K
- Ca
Mg
- Fe
- I

11

Example of a polar covalent bond

water

12

Hydrogen bonding gives water properties such as

- being liquid state in a wide temp range
- good solvent
- polar covalent bonds
- large molecule interaction
- necessary for life

13

pH

- log[H+]

14

Fatty acids are the monomers for

Lipids

15

Lipid functions

- compartmentalization
- energy
- storage
- raw material for co-factors and hormones

16

Amino acids are the monomers for

-Proteins
- energy sources
- hormones

17

Protein function

- enzymes
- structure
- ion channels

18

monosaccarides and polysaccarides are the monomers for

carbohydrates

19

Sugar function

short term energy storage,

20

Lipids have ____ interactions in aqueous solutions

hydrophobic

21

Amino acids are linked with what type of bond

peptide bond

22

When the N terminal is bonded to the C terminal in an amino acid, what is the reaction called ?

dehydration synthesis

23

True or false, carbohydrates are less soluble than lipids.

False, carbohydrates are more soluble because they are more polar

24

Nucleotides are the monomers of

DNA and RNA

25

What is the function of nucleotides ?

- compose DNA and RNA
- intracellular signaling agents

26

What are the 3 elements that make up nucleic acids ?

- A nitrogenous base ( A T C G )
- A sugar ( deoxyribose or ribose
- 1, 3 phosphate group

27

What are the two classes of nitrogenous bases ?

Purines and Pyrimidines

28

Which nitrogenous bases are purines ?

Adenine and Guanine
The base is indole

29

Which nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines ?

Cytosine, Uracil and Thymine
the base is imidazole

30

How can cAMP be created from ribose

The phosphate group in AMP can bond to ribose

31

What is cAMP

Important second messenger molecule used for intracellular signaling especially for changes outside of the cell coming in

32

What is ATP

Energy currency of the cell . GTP is also used as energy currency

33

Why is there such high energy in phosphate- phospate bonds ?

There is charge - charge repulsion between PO4 groups resulting in instability

34

What is the main storage form of a polysaccharide in animal tissue ?

glycogen

35

What is the main storage form of polysaccharides in plants ?

starch and cellulose

36

Which is stiffer , DNA or RNA and why ?

DNA is stiffer because of the stable double helix and the tertiary structure . This makes it a strong information medium because of the hydrogen bonding between the bases.

37

Why does RNA act more like a protein ?

RNA is not double stranded making it less stable than DNA but less stiff allowing for more movement

38

Why is the double bond character significant in peptide bonds?

It prevents rotation adding stability in the bonds .

39

Amino side chains can be

polar , nonpolar, acidic , basic , charged , uncharged

40

What are the levels of protein structure ?

Primary, secondary, tertiary, Quaternary

41

Primary structure

A chain of amino acid sequences

42

What are the two forms of secondary structure ?

Alpha helix and beta sheet

43

To create an alpha helix , what kind of side chains are needed ?

Side chains that are either large, polar or charged.

44

In a beta sheet , hydrogen bonds can be aligned in either a ____ or _____ manner

parallel or anti -parallel

45

This structure is defined as the overall shape of the side chain protein

tertiary structure

46

The structure that contains multiple protein structures

quarternary structure

47

Enzymes

A type of protein that controls specificity and direction of biochemical reactions

48

Enzymes reduce the _____ of reactions

activation energy

49

Activation energy

Energy needed to start a reaction

50

Why do enzymes have specificity ?

Bonding of enzymes is caused by having a certain shape and active site

51

Catabolic reactions

Exergonic reactions that break down material to release energy

52

Anabolic reactions

Endergonicc reactions that synthesize material

53

Types of end product inhibition

-Competitive inhibition
- Non- competitive inhibition
- Allosteric inhibition

54

Allosteric inhibition

The binding of a ligand such as cAMP regulates an inhibitor which prevents binding. If the cAMP does not bind, there is a change in conformation which allows for binding

55

The rate of the reaction depends on the concentration of

reactants, products, and the enzyme ( ) mass action

56

What are other factors that can influence the rate of a reaction.

- pH
- Temperature
- Osmolarity

57

What are two main types of proteins ?

- Enzymes
- Structural proteins

58

Structural proteins

A class of proteins that support the structure of the cell

59

Examples of structural proteins

- Microtubules
- Intermediate filaments
- Microfilaments

60

Most fatty acids are present in the ____ form

triglycerides or phospholipids

61

Why are phospholipids crucial to cell strucuture ?

they contribute to the structure of the extracellular matrix for transportation

62

Fick's Law of Diffusion

Concentration moves from high to low

63

Osmosis

Diffusion of water (Passive)

64

Two types of diffusion

active and passive

65

Active diffusion

Diffusion that requires an input of energy to move ions against a concentration gradient

66

Passive diffusion

Diffusion that requires no input f energy as ions move with their concentration gradient

67

Hypertonic solutions

Greater solute concentration outside of the cell than inside of the cell . Water will leave the cell resulting in lysing.

68

Hypotonic solutions

Greater solute concentration inside the cell than the outside. Water will enter the cell resulting in the cell becoming full and bursting

69

Isotonic solutions

Solute concentration is equal inside and outside the cell. Water moves freely in and out.