Lecture 1 Slides Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 Slides Deck (26):
1

Plasma membrane

Made from lipids, glycolipids, proteolipids with embedded proteins

2

Cytosol

Mostly water with soluble proteins, carbs, nucleic acids, stored food/energy

3

In prokaryotic cells, much of metabolism occurs in

Cytosol

4

In eukaryotic cells, metabolism occurs in

Organelles

5

What does coordination among organelles need

Cytosolic controls

6

What happens in cytosol

Glycolysis
Fermentation
Translation

7

What happens in nucleus

DNA replication
Transcription

8

What happens in mito

TCA cycle
Aerobic respiration

9

What happens in plasma membrane in prokaryotes

Aerobic respiration
Photosynthesis

10

What happens in prok. Cytosol

Glycolysis
Fermentation
TCA cycle
Calvin cycle in Cyanobacteria
DNA replication
Transcription
Translation

11

Taxonomy

Classification, identification and naming of organisms

12

Phylogenetically

Study of the evolutionary relatedness of organisms

13

Traditional taxonomic groups of living organisms

EUKARYOTES
Animals
Plants
Fungi
Protista
PROKARYOTES
bacteria
Archaea

14

What are traditional classifications based on? New methods?

Old, morphology and nutrition
New, DNA sequences, genomics

15

Three domains of life

Bacteria
Archaea
Eukaryotes

16

When did root of eukaryotic tree start

1.5a2 B years ago

17

From what are mitochondria derived

Symbiosis of bacterial cell

18

How is the nature of eukaryotic genomes chimeric

Genes for info processing more similar to archaeal genes
Genes for metabolic processes more similar to bacterial genes
Many eukaryotic genes are unique to eukaryotes

19

What is the TACK group of archaea

Have proteins in common with eukaryotes, suggesting first eukaryotes are derived from that group of bacteria

20

Hypothetical model for origin of eukaryotic cell

1. Archeon from TACK loses cell wall
2. Actin cytoskeleton is altered for phagocytosis
3. Phagocytosis of numerous bacteria and archea with transfer of some DNA to the nucleoid
4. Devt of protective membrane system around nucleoid and uptake of bacterial endosymbiont that maintains its independence as the mito
5. Mitochondria multiply in primitive eukaryotic cell

21

What is special about parakaryon myojinensis

Isolated from a Thermal vent in the deep sea off the coast of japan. It has features intermediate bet. Prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
-a single nucleoid bounded by a single membrane and filling 40% of the cell
-no mitochondria
-several endosymbiont a with features similar to bacteria

22

Two eukaryotic clades

Bikont clade (two cilia)
Unikont clade (one cilium and triple gene fusion)

23

Cladistics

Uses quantitative analysis of shared derived characters to classify organisms into groups derived from a last common ancestor

24

Unikont clade divisions

Amoebozoa
Opisthokonta

25

Bikont clade subgroups

Archaeplastida, chromalveolata, rhizaria, excavata

26

Extracellular matrix

ECM or cell wall. Deposited by the cell, made from protein, carbohydrate, or combo, may also contain lipids , glycolipids, proteolipids