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Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (56):
1

Define a variation

When a bacterial cell is different from its parent cell (has new characteristics)

2

What is is called when a bacterial cell has new characteristics when compared to the parent cells?

A variation

3

Name the different types of pehnotypic variations

Morphological, Cultural, and Physiological

4

Define a phenotypic variation

1. Temporary (can be reverted
2. Changes the expression of a gene (not a mutation)
3. Common (induced by the environment)

5

Are phenotypic changes permanent?

No, they are temporary and revertible

6

T or F- A phynotypic variation is a mutation in the gene

False, it is just a change in the expression of a gene

7

T or F- A phenotypic variation is a change in the expression of a gene

True

8

T or F- A phenotypic variation is unique

False, if induced by the enviroment, it will be quite common

9

What are some morphological variations?

Difference in sizes between culture ages, or in same species in different mediums

10

Which are larger, broth cultures cells or agar culture cells? Why?

Broth culture cells because the broth has more water, allowing the bacterial cells to absorb it, becoming larger

11

T of F- Young culture cells are smaller than old culture cells

False, young cultures are larger

12

T or F- Morphology refers to microscopic levels

True

13

Give an example of a cultural change

Serratia marcesens, a rod that changes color when grown in different temperature (37*C=white, 25*C=red)

14

At what temperature does serratia marcescens turn white?

37*C

15

At what temperature does serratia marcescens turn red?

25*C

16

What bacteria changes colors based on temperature (25*C=red, 37*C=white)?

Serratia marcescens

17

Color change is an example of what kind of morphological change?

Cultural

18

Give and example of a physiological change

The production of beta-galactosidase in Escherichia coli, which only happens in environments that contain lactose

19

Why does e.coli not constantly produce Beta Galactosidase?

To conserve energy

20

Do human experience physiological variations?

Yes, humans will produce alcohol dehydrosenase to break down alcohol

21

What organism produces alcohol dehydrosanase to break down alcohol?

Humans

22

Define a genotypic variation

1. Mutation (change in amino acids in DNA/RNA)
2. Permanent (nonreversable)
3. Rare (1/billion)
4. Random

23

Are genotypic variations always helpful?

No, some can be lethal

24

What is a silent variation?

A genotypic variation that that no apparent effect

25

What do you call a genotypic variation that has no apparent effect?

A silent gene

26

Can genotypic variations be induces?

Yes, UV light can induce variations

27

How common is a genotypic variation?

Very rare, 1/billion

28

T of F- Genotypic variations are rare

True

29

T of F- Genotypic variations are non-permanent

False

30

T of F- Genotypic variations are always helpful

False

31

T of F- Genotypic variations are mutations

True

32

T of F- Genotypic variations are random

True

33

Give an example of a smooth bacteria

E.coli

34

Give and example of rough bacteria

Bacillus (specifically subtilis)

35

Give an example of mucoid bacteria

Klebsiella pneumoniae

36

What type (S, R, M) is e.coli?

S (smooth)

37

What type (S, R, M) is Bacillus (specifically subtilis)?

R (rough)

38

What type (S, R, M) is Klebsiella pneumoniae?

M (mucoid)

39

What are the three forms of colonial morphological mutations?

S (smooth), R (rough), and M (mucoid)

40

Describe a smooth cell

Smooth, round, shiny (slime layer), virulent

41

Describe a rough cell

Wrinkled, dull (dry), irregular, nonvirulent

42

Describe a mucoid cell

Smooth, round, mucoid

43

T or F- a mucoid cell is smooth, round, shiny (slime layer), virulent

False, a smooth cell is smooth, round, shiny (slime layer), virulent

44

Smooth cells grow with what kind of morphology?

Singles

45

Rough cells grow with what kind of morphology?

Chains

46

Mucoid cells grow with what kind of morphology?

Singles, capsules

47

T or F- Mucoid cells grow in chains

False, they grow in singles and capsules

48

T or F- Rough cells grow in chains

True

49

T or F- Rough cells are virulent

False

50

T or F- What kind of cell is smooth, round, shiny, and virulent?

A smooth cell

51

What does a shiny layer indicate?

A slime layer

52

What does a dull cell indicate?

It is dry

53

Why are we trying to reduce the amount of anti-biotics we use in America?

To try and keep the bacteria from forming a resistance

54

T or F- Staphylococcus aureus will not develop a resistance to penicillin when grown in plain BHI

True

55

Is staphylococcus capable of gaining a resistance to penicillin? How?

Yes, if grown in an environment with penicillin, a single cell that has mutated a resistance can survive and reproduce penicillin resistant colonies

56

Can things mutate to gain resistance to certain chemicals?

Yes