Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (24):
The cell has two sets of chromosome; one is from the mother and the other from the father
the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
a chromosome that determines the sex of an organism
Two gametes form a diploid zygote with two copies of autosomal chromosomes
is the number of chromosomes in a gamete
a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores
a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
a mature haploid unites with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote
is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes and almost never changes the number of chromosomes
Asexual Reproduction Advantages
- No time finding a
mate (less energy)
- All of your alleles are
passed on (more
in next generation)
- Fast reproduction
Asexual Reproduction Disadvantages
All offspring identical
the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes
How does the cell reduce its genetic information for
homologous pairs form tetrads and exchange sections of DNA in a process called crossing-over.
The duplicated chromosomes and spindle fibers reappear in each new cell.
homologous chromosomes line up in the center of the cell. Each chromosome pair attaches to one spindle fiber.
The duplicated chromosomes move to the center of the cell. Each centromere attaches to two spindle fibers instead of one.
chromosomes are inherited freely from one another
traits on different chromosomes have an
equal chance of occurring together
Chromatids do not seperate. The two pairs of chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell. Each duplicated chromosome still has two chromatids.
The centromere divides. The chromatids seperate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Each chromatid is now an individual chromosome.
The cytoplasm divides and two new cells form. Each new cell has one duplicated chromosome from each similar pair.