Lecture 10 Flashcards Preview

AST205 > Lecture 10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (32):
1

What will the upcoming mars rover do?

It will collect dust samples and safely store them to find remnants of microbial life

2

What method will the new mars rover use?

Raman Spectroscopy

3

How does Raman spectroscopy work?

It uses shifts in scattered light to identify materials

4

What is the brute-force method of seeing what's in the center of the earth?

Drilling

5

What are the two different kinds of waves and their differences?

P waves (side to side) and S waves (up and down)

6

What is sound?

A p wave

7

How does seismic waves allow us to determine what the earth's center looks like?

The way some are diverted suggests a solid core with a liquid outer core and a solid crust

8

What are the three pieces of inside the Earth, in order of density?

Core, Mantle, Crust

9

How did the inside of the core become layered?

Via differentiation, where gravity pulls the heavier materials down and allows the lighter ones to rise up

10

What does it take for an object to become spherical?

About 500 km and 1 Gyr

11

What experiment demonstrated that rock was not totally immutable?

The pitch-drop experiment

12

What is the lithosphere?

The planet's outer layer of cool, rigid rock

13

What is the primary drive behind geological activity?

Interior heat

14

Why do planets have interior heat?

Accretion (energy upon impact), Differentiation (change in angular momentum), Radioactive decay

15

What is the only ongoing source of heat?

Radioactive decay

16

What three things allow planetary interiors to cool off?

Convection, Conduction, and radiation

17

How does planet size control geology?

Larger planets stay hotter longer

18

How does a magnetic field generate geology?

It is created by interior heat, and keeps the atmosphere intact

19

How are magnetic fields generated?

By the motion of charged particles

20

What are the three names that cause a magnetic field?

Ampere's Law, Faraday's Law, Lorenz's force

21

What are the four processes that shape planetary surfaces?

Impact cratering, erosion, volcanism, tectonics

22

How large are craters formed?

About 10x the size of the object

23

What shape are craters?

Mostly circular

24

what kinds of craters can you find on earth?

All three kinds

25

Where is the largest crater?

Rheasilvia on Vesta

26

What are the three kinds of volcanoes?

Plains (runniest), Shield (runny), Strato (not very runny)

27

Is the entire mantle of the Earth lava?

No, just a few choice spots

28

What is outgassing?

Responsible for much of our atmosphere, when a volcano releases a bunch of gas from underground

29

How do we get valleys and mountains?

BY stretching and compressing of tectonic plates

30

How do craters reveal a geological age?

Most craters happened way in the past, so fewer craters mean a surface is new, and many craters means a surface is ol

31

Why do larger (warmer) planets have newer surfaces?

Tectonics, erosion, outgassing, and volcanism are all more likely

32

What affects how much geology there is?

Heat, distance from sun, presence of water, faster rotation