Flashcards in Lecture 10: Chemotherapeutics (Part 1) Deck (105)
chemotherapeutic drugs are used to eradicate _________ or ________
1. pathogenic organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites)
2. neoplastic disease (cancer, organ, transplantation)
what are 4 ant-microbial drug subclassifications?
major goal: infectious disease treatment strategy
to kill the microbes - disrupt their ability to propagates so the immune system can get rid of them.
what are two difficulties infectious disease treatment strategies face?
1. drugs must kill microbes but spare the host (selective toxicity)
2. resistance to drugs
why is drug resistance unavoidable? (3)
1. microbes: subject to genetic variation - allow survival
2. anti-microbial drugs are available without a prescription
3. irrational self-administration or prescribing (50% appropriately, 50% poor patient compliance)
what 3 infectious diseases are becoming difficult to treat?
3. some forms of gonorrhea
t/f: microbes have the same features as human cells that are necessary for microbial survival
F: microbes have different features than human cells that are necessary for microbial survival
t/f: antibiotics and antibacterial are used interchangeably?
an antibiotic is a _________ subsatnces produced by one _________ that can inhibit growth or kill another microorganism. Made in ________.
an antibiotic is a _______ compound that has to be produced by another microorganism
the _______ penicillium released a substance, that was eventually termed penicillin, that inhibited the growth of __________________
Gram-Positive (G+): 2
Gram-Negative (G-): 2
1. E. coli
- lethal to the bacterial cell (KILLS bacteria)
- number of bacteria fall quickly after taking the drug
- more rapid response and clinical improvement
- inhibits bacteria replication/growth but does not kill them
- number of bacteria remains CONSTANT
some drugs may be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on ______________
define a narrow spectrum of activity.
the drug is active against a single species of bacteria or limited group (G+ or G- bacteria)
define a broad spectrum of activity.
the drug is active against a wide range of bacteria
broad-spectrum drugs are used initially for what?
treatment of infection when the causative pathogen is not certain or identified
what type of walls do bacterial cells have
describe the cell wall of a G+ bacteria
very thick wall and have only an inner cell membrane
describe the cell wall of a G- bacteria
thin wall and have an outer and inner cell membrane
bacterial cells synthesize their own _________
bacteria have DNA _________ and __________
1. gyrase (topoisomerase II)
2. topoisomerase IV
bacterial have different (________) ribosome than humans: ______ and _____ subunites
what drug type (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and drugs inhibit cell wall synthesis?
what drug type (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and drugs inhibit folic acid synthesis/metabolism?
1. trimethoprim and pyrimethamine (dihydrofolate reductase)
2. sulfonamides (dihydropteroate synthetase)
what drug type (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and drugs inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV?
what drug inhibits RNA polymerase?