Lecture 10: Chemotherapeutics (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10: Chemotherapeutics (Part 1) Deck (105)
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1

chemotherapeutic drugs are used to eradicate _________ or ________

1. pathogenic organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites)
2. neoplastic disease (cancer, organ, transplantation)

2

what are 4 ant-microbial drug subclassifications?

1. anti-bacterial
2. anti-viral
3. anti-fungal
4. anti-parasitic

3

major goal: infectious disease treatment strategy

to kill the microbes - disrupt their ability to propagates so the immune system can get rid of them.

4

what are two difficulties infectious disease treatment strategies face?

1. drugs must kill microbes but spare the host (selective toxicity)
2. resistance to drugs

5

why is drug resistance unavoidable? (3)

1. microbes: subject to genetic variation - allow survival
2. anti-microbial drugs are available without a prescription
3. irrational self-administration or prescribing (50% appropriately, 50% poor patient compliance)

6

what 3 infectious diseases are becoming difficult to treat?

1. MRSA
2. Pseudomonas
3. some forms of gonorrhea

7

t/f: microbes have the same features as human cells that are necessary for microbial survival

F: microbes have different features than human cells that are necessary for microbial survival

8

t/f: antibiotics and antibacterial are used interchangeably?

T

9

an antibiotic is a _________ subsatnces produced by one _________ that can inhibit growth or kill another microorganism. Made in ________.

1. chemical
2. microorganism
3. lab

10

an antibiotic is a _______ compound that has to be produced by another microorganism

natural

11

the _______ penicillium released a substance, that was eventually termed penicillin, that inhibited the growth of __________________

1. fungus
2. staphylococcus

12

Gram-Positive (G+): 2

1. staph
2. strep

13

Gram-Negative (G-): 2

1. E. coli
2. Klebsiella

14

define bacteriCIDAL.

- lethal to the bacterial cell (KILLS bacteria)
- number of bacteria fall quickly after taking the drug
- more rapid response and clinical improvement

15

define bacterioSTATIC.

- inhibits bacteria replication/growth but does not kill them
- number of bacteria remains CONSTANT

16

some drugs may be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on ______________

drug concentration

17

define a narrow spectrum of activity.

the drug is active against a single species of bacteria or limited group (G+ or G- bacteria)

18

define a broad spectrum of activity.

the drug is active against a wide range of bacteria

19

broad-spectrum drugs are used initially for what?

treatment of infection when the causative pathogen is not certain or identified

20

what type of walls do bacterial cells have

peptidoglycan

21

describe the cell wall of a G+ bacteria

very thick wall and have only an inner cell membrane

22

describe the cell wall of a G- bacteria

thin wall and have an outer and inner cell membrane

23

bacterial cells synthesize their own _________

folic acid

24

bacteria have DNA _________ and __________

1. gyrase (topoisomerase II)
2. topoisomerase IV

25

bacterial have different (________) ribosome than humans: ______ and _____ subunites

- smaller
- 50s
- 30s

26

what drug type (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and drugs inhibit cell wall synthesis?

bactericidal
1. penicillins
2. cephalosporins
3. vancomycin

27

what drug type (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and drugs inhibit folic acid synthesis/metabolism?

bacteriostatic
1. trimethoprim and pyrimethamine (dihydrofolate reductase)
2. sulfonamides (dihydropteroate synthetase)

28

what drug type (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and drugs inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV?

bactericidal
1. fluoroquinolones

29

what drug inhibits RNA polymerase?

1. rifampin

30

what drug type (bactericidal or bacteriostatic) and drugs inhibit protein synthesis (50s)?

bacteriostatic
1. macrolides
2. clindamycin