Lecture 10: Di- & Complex CBOH Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10: Di- & Complex CBOH Deck (29):
1

Lactose

a disaccharide from mammalian milks
composed of glucose and galactose
it is commercially prepared from whey
1/6 sweetness of sucrose
has low solubility (NB)

2

Milk

only humans consume milk from other species and continue to milk after weaning
Northern Europeans are the primary group that consume fluid milk as adults

3

Lactose intolerance

Half the world becomes lactose intolerant
at least half of the world's adults cannot effectively digest lactose
we didn't know about lactose intolerance until the 1950s-1960s

4

How to get around being lactose intolerant

uses of lactase enzyme:
1. directly in processing
2. Naturally with fermented dairy products
3. Dietary supplements ( lact-aid)
4. Bean-O for beans (there will "be-no" gas)

5

What else causes digestion discomfort with dairy products?

-cheese is concentrated milk proteins and fat
-lactose concentrated milk proteins and fat
-Lactose concentration begins at about that of milk
-Ripening reduces lactose concentration in cheese and yogurt

6

Carbohydrates- Starch

-polysaccharid: a polymer of many sugar moieties (glucose)
Composed of 2 polymers
1. amylose: linear
2. amylopectin: branched

7

Swelling of starches

upon heating, starch granules swell (fill with water)
-a sol is formed

8

Gel formed

after swelling and the starch cools, starch granules trap water

9

Retrogradation

the realignment of the starch polymers that causes the expulsion of water
-causes staling of bread

10

Amylopectin

more amylopectin= less retrogradation
-"waxy starches"
manufactures chemically modify starches so that the product goes stale slower

11

Amylase

enzymes used to breakdown starch

12

What are the two types of amylases?

-alpha: a random attack
-beta: cleaves off maltose

13

Malt process in brewing

starch in barley is broken down to maltose and glucose in order for yeast to ferment starch into alcohol

14

Dietary Fiber

edible parts of plants or analogous carbs that are resistant to digestion and absorption in humans small intestine with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine
-includes: polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, lignin, and associated plant substances

15

Feces

75% water
25% solids

16

Insoluble fiber:

-cellulose, lignin
undigestible
-acts as a bowel irritant
draws H20 out into lumen
cleans out lower G!- correlated with less colon cancer

17

Soluble fiber

-gums, pectins
-lowers cholesterol concentration
-more cholesterol converted to bile salts
-cholesterol pulled from bloodstream

18

Pectin

can be boiled out of plant to make a gel or jelly when sugar is added

19

Is pectin digestible?

no
only by bacteria

20

Thickeners and Gums

-polysaccharide derivatives
-natural product
-interact with water to thicken

21

Bran

hard outer layer of grain and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp
-whole grain
-Pericarp contains fiber

22

How are starch and cellulose similar?

both are made from glucose moisties

23

Is dietary fiber digestible?

No

24

Cellulose is composed of many _____ molecules

glucose

25

What is considered a component of dietary fiber

amylopectin

26

Glycogen

animal starch

27

Cellulose

dietary fiber component
- wood and paper
- not digestible by humans

28

Hemi-celluloses

component of dietary fiber

29

Gums and mucilages

component of dietary fiber