Lecture 10 Executive control, decision making, problem solving Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10 Executive control, decision making, problem solving Deck (25)
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1
Q

Executive functions encompass a variety of abilities that help aid in the __, __, and __ of other cognitive abilities (e.g., attention, memory, and motor skills), and are extremely important for successful completion of ___ tasks.

A

maintenance, organization, integration, everyday

2
Q

Executive functions are also referred to as executive ___.

A

control

3
Q

What are six clusters of executive functions? (hint: AFEEMA)

A

activation, focus, effort, emotion, memory, action

4
Q

Name the cluster of executive function that involves: task initiation, planning/organization, prioritizing, and mental flexibility.

A

activation

5
Q

Name the cluster of executive function that involves: sustained attention

A

focus

6
Q

Name the cluster of executive function that involves: goal-directed persistence, regulating alertness, and processing speed

A

effort

7
Q

Name the cluster of executive function that involves: regulation of affect and theory of mind

A

emotion

8
Q

Define working memory.

A

ability to take in info, hold it and manipulate it, then use it to produce a response

9
Q

Name the cluster of executive function that involves: monitoring, self-regulation, inhibition

A

action

10
Q

The complexity of executive functions and its associated abilities is ___, as is strikingly evident in the tests developed to assess such functioning.

A

indisputable

11
Q

It is often difficult to distinguish which cognitive processes are involved/utilized in each specific neuropsych test, due to…. [name 3]

A

individual variability, changing task demands, and complex nature of executive functioning skills

12
Q

What are three confounds in measuring executive functions?

A

failure to rely on available cognitive models, failure to meet acceptable scientific criteria regarding measurement of constructs, and failure to minimize impact of ‘lower level’ cognitive functions on task performance

13
Q

The Letter-Number Sequencing subtest from WAIS requires the person to…

A

remember and manipulate info in an ongoing fashion

14
Q

The Connor’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT) requires the person to…

A

sustain attention, and inhibit particular responses

15
Q

The Stroop Color and Word Test requires the person to…

A

follow a set of novel rule-based tasks while inhibiting automatic responses

16
Q

The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task requires the person to…

A

demonstrate problem solving strategies when provided with minimal external cues

17
Q

The Trail Making B requires the person to…

A

rapidly shift from one sequence to an alternate sequence under a time constraint

18
Q

What are the subclusters of activation?

A

task initiation, planning/organizing, prioritizing, mental flexibility

19
Q

Focus consists of ___ attention.

A

sustained

20
Q

What are the subclusters of effort?

A

goal-directed persistence, regulating alertness, processing speed/time estimation

21
Q

What are the subclusters of emotion?

A

regulation of affect, and social affect (like ToM)

22
Q

What are the subclusters of action?

A

monitoring, self-regulation/self-control, inhibition

23
Q

What are some tests that measure executive functioning?

A

Letter-Number Sequencing, Connor’s Continuous Performance Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsing Card Sorting, Trail Making B

24
Q

What are the results of the dual task and aging study? [describe 3]

A

(1) both younger and older less accurate on auditory working memory task (TDT) when concurrent response to visual working memory task (DIR) was required;
(2) overall, older adults less accurate and slower on auditory and visual across all task conditions;
(3) older adults less accurate than younger during probe interference (vs. single-task), for both auditory and visual

25
Q

fNRIS study provided first evidence that oxygenation levels are increased in the ___ during walking while talking (vs. normal walking alone) in young and old.

A

PFC