Flashcards in Lecture 10: Mammalian Respiratory System Deck (22):
Intake of molecular oxygen from the environment and the discharge of carbon dioxide
How does gas exchange occur?
Diffusion across the respiratory surface
What does the area of the respiratory system relate to?
The size of an organism and its metabolic demands. Endotherms have extensively branched and folded respiratory surfaces
What are some ways the host protects its respiratory surfaces?
Hairs, mucus, cilia, continued movement, angular branching, reduced surface tension and coughing and sneezing
Where are the lungs located?
The thoracic cavity
What functions as the voice box?
Cartilage bands in the larynx
What is the order of the respiratory system?
Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
How do mammals ventilate their lungs?
By negative pressure breathing
Describe the process of breathing
Breath in: Increased lung volume reduces air pressure and air flows in. Breath out: Muscles relax, decreased lung volume increases air pressure and air is forced out.
What is Boyle's law?
The pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to the volume.
Explain Boyle's law
As the volume of lungs increase, pressure decreases. As the volume decreases, pressure increases.
What is the volume of a breath at rest called?
What is the maximum tidal volume?
The air that remains in the lungs after exhalation.
What part of the brain sets the basic breathing rhythm?
The Medulla Oblongata
What is the equation for CO2 diffusing from the blood to the CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) affecting pH?
CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 --> H+ + HCO3-
In a mixture of gases, the pressure exerted by each gas is independent of the pressure exerted by others.
Why does blood in the right side of the heart have a lower partial pressure than in the alveoli?
So oxygen in the layer of fluid coating the alveoli xan diffuse into the blood
What direction does CO2 diffuse compared to blood to the alveoli?
It diffuses in the opposite direction to blood to the alveoli
How many subunits does haemoglobin have?
What lies in the centre of the haemoglobin?
A haem group and iron atom