lecture 10 - Managing and preventing metabolic syndrome Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in lecture 10 - Managing and preventing metabolic syndrome Deck (16):
1

To avoid metabolic syndrome, you should avoid becoming..

obese

2

While certain genes increase the risk of obesity, the prevalence has almost doubled since 1980 meaning that ..

a purely genetic cause is unlikely
genes don't mutate that fast..

3

High energy diets have the ability to change expression of genes, explained by..

epigenetics

methylation of promotor etc...

It is now clear that alot of obesity is due to epigenetics

4

A lot of _____ is due to epigenetics

A lot of obesity is due to epigenetics

5

Combating obesity

What are the details of the very low calorie diet?

limiting energy intake to 800 calories - lose weight rapidly

replace 2 meals a day

provide essential fatty acids and micronutrients

6

Arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus, two classes of nerves (neuro-peptide Y and PomC). Determines whether you're hungry. what controls these neurons?

Hormones in the blood. (approx. 10)

only 1 that makes us hungry -Ghrelin (released by the empty stomach)
Small bowel releases 9 that take hunger away (CCK, PYY, Amylin)

7

Leptin is increased from apidose tissue, what does it do?

reduces hunger - feedback system

8

Duromine
and
Topiramate (Topamax)

are examples of

weight loss pharmacological agents

+
for patients with Diabetes

Exenatide

9

If patients can't tolerate weight-loss drugs, what is the next step?

consideration for surgery - though there's a lack of funding

10

What are the operations?

Gastric banding (high failure rate)

sleeve gastrectomy - reduces level of Ghrelin


Rouz-en Y bypass - causes PYY release to decrease hunger

11

Managing Diabetes:

Diet
exercise
Drugs (metformin - controls for a while...)
Acarbose - slows the absorption of carbohydrates
GLP-1 enhancing drugs

Insulin

SGLT2 - makes sugar leak through the urine, doesn't require insulin for their action

12

true or False

Meal replacements work before at medium term weight loss

true

13

Why do diets nearly always fail?

Body weight is defended by the body using hormones

even at 3 yeasr - the hormones have not returned to base-line - still more hungry

14

How do you manage blood pressure?

reduce in salt intake!

duiretics

ACE inhibitors

B-blockers

15

hwo do you manage dyslipidaemia(high triglyceride, low HDL)?

Diet
exercise
Fibrates
Statins - for the cholesterol
Ezetimibe

16

How do you manage Hyperuricaemia (uric acid)?

Allopurinol - lowers uric acid in the blood