Lecture 10 - Weight Management: Overweight & Obesity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10 - Weight Management: Overweight & Obesity Deck (64)
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1

Where is fat stored?

Fat cells are stored in adipose tissue

2

What does body fat reflect?

Depending on what it looks like can reflect the number and size of fat cells

3

When do fat cells grow the most?

In growing years they grow the most rapidly

4

What is adipose tissue similar to?

An endocrine system

5

What determines how our fat cells grow?

It is genetically predisposed

6

What happens when fat cells die off?

They don't really die off, they shrink

7

Which demographic has a higher level of fat cells?

Obese individuals have more fat cells

8

How are fat cells developed?

When energy in > energy out

9

What happens when enlargement of fat cells becomes too much for adipose tissues?

Fat may accumulate in other areas of the body
-visceral

10

What happens to fat cells when energy out > energy in?

-Fat cell size decreases, there is no change in the NUMBER of fat cells
-ectopic fat decreases
-Adipokine profile begins to improve with as little as 5% weight loss

11

What is LPL's role in fat cell metabolism?

LPL takes up triglycerides into tissues
-LPL activity is increased in obese people

12

What does LPL levels depend on ?

Genetics and where you store your fat

13

What happens to LPL activity when you lose weight?

LPL activity increases
-is it released when fat cells shrink because the body thinks its not getting enough energy, so they shrink in hopes to regain the weight
-very efficient at regaining the weight

14

What is the set point theory?

The body likes to maintain homeostasis
-body tries to adjust to original weight either by increasing metabolism or decrease LPL activity

15

What are the main causes of overweight and obesity?

Genetics: determine preposition to obesity
- genetics interact with diet and physical activity
-physical activity can minimize the genetic influence on body weight

Epigenetics

16

What is Leptin?

Act as a hormones in the hypothalamus to maintain homeostasis and promotes a negative energy balance
-supresses appetite
-increases energy expenditure

17

What is leptins nickname?

The obese genes
-produced in adipose tissue
-codes for the leptin protein

18

What is leptin resistance?

-Production levels increase/decrease with BMI
-Does not suppress appetite or enhance energy expenditure

19

What increases leptin resistance?

Excessive fracture consumption induces leptin resistance and accelerates fat storage

20

What is Ghrelin?

Protein made in the stomach to stimulate appetite by actin on the hypothalamus

21

How do levels of Ghrelin vary?

Levels increase after weight loss
-lack of sleep increases and decreases levels
-we are sensitive to effects regardless of weight

22

What happens if you lose the ability to produce leptin?

Ghrelin will still be produced and at an even higher level

23

What is the cause of obesity and overweight ?

Physical inactivity
Childhood weight
Behavioural factors
-food choices
-hunger vs appetite
Social factors
-expectation of body types

24

What is the DRI for physical activity?

60 mins of moderate activity to prevent weight gain
150 min of moderate-vigorous activity per week for health benefits

25

Why doesn't exercise lead to weight loss?

Because NEAT accounts for those excessed calories, so exercise is just for health benefits

26

What is food?

Essential for life
Symbol of culture
Ritual object
Product to be purchased
Cause pleasure, guilt and shame

27

What are the physiological influences of food?

Sight
Smell
Sound
Texture
Taste

28

Evolutionarilty speaking, why do we eat food?

For energy purposes
-as a rule of thumb if it tastes good we can consume it can it can't harm us

29

Which is a stronger influence, hunger or satiety mechanisms?

Hunger is stronger for survival reasons. Satiety is more easily overridden

30

What is hunger?

Prompts people to eat