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The _________________________________ Model of personality was developed when researchers first attempted to investigate personality by searching through words in our language that describe aspects of personality. The test that was eventually developed contained 240 items rated on a scale of 1 – 5 (strongly disagree – strongly agree) for how much they apply to the test-taker. It is considered a “robust” model of personality.



__________________________________ is an individual’s (especially an infant’s) pattern of behaviors and emotional reactions. Researchers vehemently disagree over whether it is genetically or environmentally determined.



Theories of _____________________ __________ _______________________ focus on whether people believe that the consequences of their actions are controlled by internal person variables or by external environmental variables.

Locus of Control


To Sigmund Freud, the mind was constantly struggling to balance the roles of instinct, reason, and conscience. The term _______________________________ refers to this struggle.



The __________________________________ is the inaccessible part of the mind.



According to Freud, the Id obeys one rule called the _______________________ _____________________________, which motivates us to obtain immediate gratification in whatever form necessary.

Pleasure principle


Freud proposed that when the id and the superego come into conflict, the ego will often use _____________________________ ____________________________ to reduce the anxiety associated with this conflict.

Defense mechanisms


The Humanistic approach to personality proposes that people are innately good and internally driven to _____________________________________________, which is the realization of our full intellectual and emotional potential.



____________________________________ tests of personality are similar in structure to classroom tests, contain multiple choice, true/false type questions, and have explicit scoring rules determined in advance, while ____________________ tests of personality are designed to be more ambiguous in the hopes that the test-takers’ responses will be more revealing than in an objective test and assume that people will project their personalities into ambiguous situations.

Objective and projective


_____________________________________ ________________________ are enduring personal characteristics that reveal themselves in particular patterns of behavior in different situations.

Personality Traits