Flashcards in Lecture 11: Cooperation & Ethics Deck (56):
What is an example of altruism?
Alarm calls are "altruistic" since alarmer may attract predators to itself while protecting others
Altruism is most often performed between ________ individuals
related; per "Kin Selection"
What is an example of kin selection with altruism?
Newcomers to a primate troop less likely to alarm than long term resident w/kin in group (similar results in ground squirrels and other non-primates)
What is reciprocal altruism?
altruism that occurs between unrelated individuals provided the participants can be reasonably certain of being reciprocated later
What conditions make reciprocal altruism most likely to happen?
1. Animals are long lived
2. Animals live in coherent groups so will have repeated encounters
3. Animals have cognitive ability to monitor status of "social contract"
4. Check for Cheaters
What do we mean by "social contract" when discussing reciprocal altruism?
-track who owes who
-track "currency" values (i.e. aid in agonism, bonding contact/rituals, cooperative feeding, co-vigilance for predators, etc.)
-Assessments of reputation (i.e. observe who potentially is a good partner, who on fence, etc.)
What do we mean by "cheaters" when discussing reciprocal altruism?
Those who do not reciprocate must be detected and punished ("sanctioned")
i.e. De Waal 1996: Yeoren sanctions coalition partner Nikki for not helping against Luit
What is the importance of checking for cheaters?
Otherwise, cheaters could exploit, swamp system, making reciprocal altruism unstable
In biology, what does altruism mean?
any act that benefits another, in which Cost to agent is greater than benefit to agent
Why are there issues with the definitive data for Reciprocal Altruism?
-difficult to generate and interpret
-determining cost, benefit, social currency, etc. may not be straightforward esp. over long time periods
-bits and pieces suggest both primates and cetaceans may be candidates
What is an example of altruism in chimps?
-If find fig tree with lots of ripe fruit, then call. if little ripe fruit, then don't
-often results in sharing with kin, but broadcast call also attracts non-kin and some sharing occurs
What is an example of altruism in vervets?
-vervet alarm calls
-diff for Eagle, Snake, leopard, provoke appropriate defensive response
What is the vervet response for eagle?
move to center of tree
What is the vervet response for snake?
stand up and look around
What is the vervet response for leopard?
run to outer tree branches
How do vervet infants exude altruism?
-begin calling @ 1 year, but first to right category/wrong instance (e.g. Eagle to Vulture))
-eventually through feedback from others' response and use, learn only alarm to threat species
Why are the vervet alarm calls typically consider altruism versus. reciprocal altruism?
vervets live in matrilineal groups, so this is probably kin-based altruism, not Reciprocal Altruism
What type of altruistic behavior is common in cetaceans?
epimeletic (caregiving) behavior (common in odontocetes) unlike in NHPs
What are examples of epimelectic behavior in cetaceans?
-when one ailing/dead, others will lift to surface to breathe
-one captured, harrassed, others will "stand by" --whalers used this to catch esp. sperm whales
-sometimes see shark teeth marks on Tursiops' head from ramming--defending others?
What are mass strandings and how is it related to altruism?
only one, few animals ill, but others will also beach, refuse to leave (or until other dead)
-often seen in Globacephaline species (Pilot whales, Orca?)
Cetacean altruism typically involves _____, (since ______ and _______ live in matrilineal groups) BUT can sometimes see this behavior between animals of ______ _______
kin, Sperm Whales and Pilot whales, different species
What are examples of when altruism is seen between cetaceans of different species?
-Captive Orca & Lag. or Orcas from different oceans aid, mourn one another
-Wild Bottlenose sometimes sides with known Spotteds against other unknown Bottlenose
-Long history, including recent, reports of Humans being rescued, protected from sharks
(above technically fit the "Reciprocal Altruism" model described above
What are the best examples of "altruism" involved in apparent expectation of reciprocation within primates?
-Female vervets more likely to aid nonkin if later recently groomed them (aid kin regardless)
-male olive baboon helps male ally drive off a third from female, tho may not get to mate that time
-some male chimp hunting bands (Tai forest) share meat only with participating males
-female bonobos form reciprocating coalitions (e.g. via gg-rub, groom, peet, etc.)
-plus SEX with males or females can be exchanged for food in Bonobos
What is the data for reciprocal altruism in cetaceans?
no data yet for dolphins, although coalitional and cooperative behavior commonplace, so seems likely
What is reconciliation?
increased tendency to engage in affiliation following agonism
What is a caveat of reconciliation? (how is it related or not related to altruism?)
-not necessarily altruistic since still serves self-interest (i.e. make peace, reduce stress, repair relationships, etc)
-but certainly an aspect of human ethics and does serve the greater good
Describe the actions of reconciliation found within primates?
-compare likelihood of affiliative interaction within 10 minutes of agonsim vs. of random proximity
-most do increase grooming, friendly contact immediately after fights
-seem more often egalitarian Stumptail than despotic Rhesus Macaques (except w/kin)
What is mediated reconciliation? (e.g. De Waal)
-when antagonists do not themselves show inclination to reconcile
-other in group may establish a jointly-affiliative context, until antagonists groom each other
For cetaceans, one study in captive _________ also shows affiliation increased after agonism (Weaver, 2003).
What is an example of equity exhibited by primates?
subject sees other animal receive better reward than it does for same task
-comes to refuse poorer reward (which it previously accepted when both recv'd) and/or to do task
In the equity (Brosnan 2006) task, what animals were used? Which performed faster?
Chimps refused faster than Cebus, and were more sensitive to other animal's presence
gives rock, sees other person gets grape, and they get cucumber; get mad => some sense of fairness and refuse to work more
What is empathy?
emotional synchrony with sufferer despite lack of threat or pain to self
How do cetaceans exhibit empathy?
often show distress (wide eyes, whistling, persistent) when others captured, hurt
How do primates exhibit empathy?
Primates (but not Rhesus monkeys), show distress (e.g. pout face) when see other monkey captured
-mirror cells may facilitate recognition of goals and help evoke pertinent emotion
What is self control and what is it required for?
-culturally mandated/cortically mediated restraint
-required for deception
How do cetaceans exhibit self control?
carnivorous predator that humans interact with
e.g. Orca treat trainers as part of pod, even though could consume
How do primates exhibit self control?
-consider data on deception as example of self control
-recall "Greedy Giveaway" task and how mediating symbol can help curb "greedy" response
How is self recognition tested?
self recognition in mirror tested via "Mark test" (Gallup 1970)
What is the procedure with primates during the "Mark Test"?
Subject exposed to mirror, then mirror removed. Subject anesthetized, forehead marked with paint. When it awakens, watch to see if detects paint (does not), then re-expose to mirror
What are the results of primates with the "Mark Test"?
Monkey threaten weird "other monkey" it sees; Apes groom themselves to remove paint
What is the interpretation of the results of the "Mark Test" with primates?
only apes have "self concept" that allows them to recognize own reflection
What happened with dolphins in the "Mark Test"?
-some researchers attempted mark test with Dolphins
-not appropriate test
-some dolphins "make faces" at mirror, but could be testing mimicry ability of animal in mirror?
-in one test, d's ignored mark until trainers started to wipe it, then paid repeated visits to mirror (?)
What does "self recognition" really mean? (consider in relation to humans)?
In humans, seems to develop out of social interaction
-related to "perspective taking"? -> seems to be a prerequisite for ToM??
-humans recognize self in mirror at 10 months, not good at ToM until 3 yeras
What brain areas are involved in primates for ethics and cooperation?
1. Prefrontal cortex: involved in inhibiting impulsive, emotional (Limbic system mediated) responses, thinking twice, orbitofrontal focused on social interpretation and strategy
2. Amygdala implicated in human empathy
What brain areas are involved with cooperation and ethics in cetaceans?
-paralimbic cortex?? (cellular physiology consistent with "higher visual" but positioned to interact with limbic?"
-note: dolphins have HUGE amygdala relative to primates and other mammals
Empathy is harder to find in _____
Rhesus ______ display distress at the sight of other's distress
chimps ______ display distress at the sight of other's distress
What could be an explanation for the difference in empathetic reactions from Rhesus and Chimpanzees?
-elaborated mirror cell system involved in Chimpanzees
*may also be involved in role of observation in problem solving
What brain area is important for primate deception
PFC (well developed in apes)
i.e. Mean trainer/Nice trainer task
i.e. greedy giveaway task (self inhibition, same circuits => NHPs)
Why is the Mark test when used on dolphins not ecologically valid?
dolphins can't touch the mark or use limbs to acknowledge it; cetaceans not into grooming bodies
What brain regions interact and are important in ToM? What could be the brain region for these in cetaceans?
orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala
in cetaceans: paralimibic cortex (extra lobe) => not really a frontal lobe, could be same as OFC in primates
(True/False): Altruism requires sophisticated cognition.
Explain embedded thinking.
scoring head orientation in bonobos -> brightness field -> effect 3rd party = C's influence (looking at interaction), then A would be more likely to turn away
-social tools are embedded, alibi: act as if interested in something else to distract other's gaze
Greedy Giveaway Task: M & M's use ______ system while symbols use the ______ system = different circuits mediating response