Lecture 11 - Parasitology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11 - Parasitology Deck (40):
1

What are the 3 ways that a parasite exists with their host?

Symbiotic, Commensalism, Infectious

2

Types of Enteric Protozoa

Giardia intestinalis
Entamoeba histolytica
Dientamoeba fragilis
Crytosporidium parvum & hominis
Cyclospora cayetanesis

3

How do we typically obtain enteric protozoa?

From contaminated food

4

What is the difference between a cyst form and a trophozoite form?

Cysts are the infective form while trophozoites are the active form

5

How is E. Protozoa diagnosed?

From examination of the stool

6

Are E. Protozoa pathogenic/infectious?

YES! However, we don't usally have symptoms/get sick.

7

What is the transmission of E. Protozoa most commonly associated with?

Foreign travel and campling

8

What is unique about they symptoms of E. Protozoa

They are usually prolonged or recurrent

9

Where does G. Intestinalis infect?

The duodenum

10

Why is G. Intestinalis so common?

Found in water supply and is resistant to chlorination in the treatment. Must use iodine or UV light to kill

11

What size is G. Intestinalis

SOOOO SMALL. Need 5 stool samples to rule out infection

12

What are a few symptoms of G. Intestinalis

Soft stool, weight loss and the possibility of becoming lactose intolerance

13

What is the most common symptom of Entamoeba histolytica?

Blood stool & diarrhea

14

How is E. Histolytica diagnosed?

Through a blood test

15

What is a unique feature about Dientamoeba fragilis that no other enteric protozoa exhibit?

Does not have a cyst form

16

What is D. Fragilis transmitted by?

Through pinworm eggs (child worms)

17

What is unique about D. Fragilis' nuclei?

TWO NUCLEI! Also in a cross section to form into 4 sections

18

How infectious is Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis

Extremely! Only need a little to cause massive infection

19

Where is cryptosporidium parvum/hominis most commonly found

Public pools, spas, splash pads etc

20

How is crypto diagnosed?

Using acid fast staining

21

What is the most common form of transmission for cyclospora cayetanensis

Imported fruit transmission

22

How is cyclospora diagnosed?

Acid fast stains

23

What are the types of Blood & Tissue Parasites?

Plasmodium
Toxoplasma gondii
Leishmania
Trypanosoma
Free living ameboe

24

What is the more common name for plasmodium?

Malaria

25

How is plasmodium transmitted?

Through mosqitos

26

Why is plasmodium so lethal?

Bacterium gets into liver within 30 minutes

27

Why is there no malaria vaccine?

Bacterium moves too quickly, gets to the liver before vaccine can act

28

What causes fever in malaria?

The release of merozoites

29

What is the most common symptom of plasmodium falciparum?

Constant fever

30

How does plasmodium falciparum kill?

It eats away at the bone marrow and kills RBCs

31

What is the most common symptom of plasmodium vivax?

Fever every 49 hours

32

What does plasmodium vivax attack?

Young RBC

33

What is the most common symptom of toxoplasma gondii?

Mostly asymptomatic unless immunocompromised

34

What are the 4 forms of leishmaniasis?

Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral, and sand fly inoculating a promastigotes

35

What is the main symptom of leishamaniasis?

Huge malformations all over the body

36

How is leishmaniasis diagnoised?

Biopsy or PCR

37

What are the two forms of trypanosomiasis and where in the world are they most commonly found?

Cruzi - south america
Brucei - africa

38

How is Chagas disease transmitted?

By the kissing bug!

39

How does the kissing bug infect?

Comes out at night from living in ur crib and bites your eye filling up on blood. Becomes so large that it shits on you and then you rub the poopy in ur eye and get infection

40

What is unique about african sleeping sickness transmission?

Bug is attracted to humans by sight, not chemicals. aka, repellent doesn't work