Lecture 11: Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11: Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism Deck (24):
1

Defects in amino acid resorption leads to

Hartnup disease/ Cystinuria

2

Define proteolysis

degradation of proteins for reabsorption

3

Define: Exopeptidase

Attacks at C- (carboxypeptidase) or N-terminus (aminopeptidase) ends

4

Define: Endopeptidase

Attacks within the protein at a specific site (digests internal peptide bonds)

5

Intracellular Proteolytic Control:

What are non-selective forms of digestion?

-Macroautophagy
-Microautophagy
-Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA)

6

Intracellular Proteolytic Control:

What is Proteasomal degradation?

Large proteasome cytoplasmic complexes that cleave polyubiquinated proteins --> ubiquitin pathway

7

Proteolytic enzymes are secreted...

as needed

8

What is the name of an inactive form of enzyme?

zymogen

9

How are zymogens activated?

proteolytic cleavage

10

Tripsinogen is activated by:

Enterokinase

11

What transaminases are used as biomarkers for liver function?

AST/ALT

12

Transaminases require coenzyme

pyridoxyl 5'-phosphate PLP

13

Nitrogen trap mechanism:

What amino acid is able to do this?

Glutamate

fig 15.8, p 262

14

What are the essential amino acids?

Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Valine
Methionine
Phenylalanine
Tryptophan
Threonine
Histidine
Arginine

(10 Total)

15

Ketogenic, Ketogenic and Glucogenic, Glucogenic.

How many in each category? (exclusive categories)

Ketogenic: 2

Keto/Gluco: 5

Gluco: 13

16

What are the ketogenic amino acids?

Leu, Lys

17

What are the ketogenic/glucogenic amino acids?

Ile, Tryp, Phe, Tyr, Thr

18

What are ketogenic amino acids?

Precursors for alpha keto acids, ketone bodies and fatty acids

19

What are glucogenic amino acids?

Pyruvate/TCA cycle intermediates

20

What is the ratio of ketogenic/keto&gluco/gluco?

2:5:13

21

What are the aa that create OAA?

Asn, Asp

22

What are the aa that create alpha ketoglutarate?

Gln, Pro, HIs, Arg

23

What are the aa that create Succinyl CoA?

Val, Ile, Met, Thr

Become Propionyl CoA

24

What are the aa that create fumarate?

Phe, Tyr, Asp