Flashcards in Lecture 11b Extra-Family Influences on Development Deck (45):
What is an important extra family influence to development?
The effects of media on development are very ________. Lots groups have interests and this research could cause problems for many others.
What are the issues and limitation on research on the effects of the media?
- Can't randomly assign
- Lab causal research can only study the short term effects
Can't randomly assign a child to something we believe to be dangerous, must use preexisting groups and can only get ___________. The use of preexisting groups means that there could be __________.
correlation data, no causal statements
Lab studies have shown that after watching something violent _________
aggression increases temporarily (ex. power rangers experiment, bobo doll experiment)
T or F: TV always has a negative impact.
False -sesame street
What was the goal of sesame street?
To prepare children especially those impoverished and at risk, for school.
Sesame street was based on whose work?
By the end of its first year ___% of US kids watched sesame street
Sesame street had a significan positive impact on _______ and __________ development. Kids who watched it daily had ______ compared to those who watched it less and they were better prepared for school (esp. __________ kids) and were more _______.
cognitive and social-emotional development
The effects of shows like sesame street lasted into _____
Shows like Sesame st are good but overall kids who watch more than ______/week of TV do worse in school.
How aggressive is TV?
In a normal show there are ____violent act/ hour, cartoons have ___ violent acts/ hour
- 5 violent acts/ hour
- 25- 30 violent acts/ hour
How is aggression portrayed on TV?
It gets you what you want, rewarding and a successful way of solving problems
Unfortunately studies finding immediate effects tell us ________ and longitudinal studies cannot make ________ because there isn't random assignments.
little about development
Describe Bandura's Bobo doll experiment?
Kids saw adults interact with the bobo doll on TV in person or as a cartoon. The adult was either rewarded or punished. The kid was then allowed to interact with the bobo doll in a separate room.
What were the results of Bandura's Bobo doll experiment?
seeing an aggressive act increased aggression in both boys in girls and aggression increased more if the adult was rewarded than if the adult wasn't rewarded.
The Bob doll experiment shows us that the _________ that goes with the violent behaviour is just as important as the violent behaviour itself.
Children learn new aggressive behaviors by watching them be _______ and _______
modeled and rewarded
Describe the study that examined the effects o power rangers on aggression?
Kids were assigned to watch power rangers or not before playing with other kids.
In the power rangers experiment the children who watched the violent TV (power rangers) engaged in ______ the number of aggressive acts as the control.
T or F: We can't make a causal statement about the power rangers experiment.
False - the causal statement would be "immediately after watching power rangers, kids become more aggressive"
What did the study exploring the effect of violent vs family movies on aggression in delinquents find?
A baseline was taken before hand. No difference in aggression was seen in those who watched the family movies, the number of aggressive acts increased in the short term for the boys who saw the violent movies.
What two studies show that violent media has immediate effects?
The power ranger study and the juvenile delinquents violent vs family movie study
Describe the longitudinal experimnet by Eron.
parents and kids rated the the TV shows that the child watched as well as their aggression levels and were then followed to age 30.
Eron's longitudinal study found that at aggression at age 19 was best predicted by __________. Children that watched lots of violent TV at age 8 were more likely to ________ at age 30
-amount of violent TV watched at age 8 (aggression at 8 was also a predictor but not as good a predictor as TV)
- have a record with a serious criminal offence.
What is a potential problem with Eron's longitudinal stud?
Possible that the groups had initial differences.
Frazier et al found that violent TV at age 5 predicts aggresion at age ____ but interactions with _________ could strengthen or weaken the correlation.
parental disciplinary methods
According to Frazier et al aggression at 12 was _______ if parents were aggressive and controlling.
The effects of aggressive TV and controlling parenting were __________
What are the 5 mechanisms that can affect aggression as a result of TV?
2) Vicarious reinforcement of aggressive responding
3) Weakened inhibitions against aggressive behaviour
4) Emotional desensitization to violence
5) Lack of exposure to prosocial behviour
Two possible ways parenting works as a mechanism?
-Parents can intervene to help kids digest violence and understand consequnces
-TV watching and aggression could both be side effects of low control households
how does Vicarious reinforcement work as a mechanism?
Kids internalize the idea that aggression solves problems, get ideas about new ways of being aggressive
Describe the mechanism of weakened inhibitions against aggressive behaviour
cognitive readiness to agress and more likely to aggress as a first response when frustrated because it's not as big a deal.
Describe the mechanism of emotional desensitization to violence?
With exposure to violence it's easier to watch.
Describe the mechanism of exposure to prosocial behaviour?
By choosing to watch violence rather than prosocial stuff they are denying themselves the opportunity to learn prosocial behaviour. Trade off.
Kids video game usage peaks in grade ___ with __hrs/week for boys and __ hrs/week for girls
What are some benefits of video games?
- better spatial skills
- perceptual skills
-boost self efficacy (winning or figuring it out)
What are the costs of video games?
- aggession increases immediately after
- ability to tolerate frustration decreases
- Hostility and empathy scores decrease in the lab
__% of video games are violent and the violent ones are especially popular
_______ and _______ worsen if kids play for more than 90 min/day
anxiety and ability to tolerate frustration
How should we interprete data on media and aggression?
What are the limitations of longitudinal research?
no random assignment/ correlational
What are the limitations of lab research?
Focus on short term effects, not developmental changes