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Flashcards in Lecture 12 Deck (29):
1

Hydrogen pairs with their electrons are delivered to ETC carrier molecules by

the coenzymes NAD and FAD (their reduced forms)

2

The electrons flow from one carrier molecule to another in a series of

oxidation and reduction reactions

3

In aerobic respiration what is the
final hydrogen/electron acceptor

oxygen

4

As these reactions proceed ATP is generated and released incrementally by a process known as

chemiosmosis

5

cytochromes

Many of the ETC intermediates are iron containing
compounds known as cytochromes

6

For every 2H (hydrogen pair) delivered to the ETC on NAD how many ATPs are manufactured

3 ATPs are manufactured

7

For every 2H delivered to the ETC on FAD on many ATPs are manufactured

2 ATPs are manufactured

8

The vast majority of the cells ATPs are manufactured in

the ETC

9

The ATP is produced here by a process known as

oxidative phosphorylation

10

ETC is sometimes referred to as

the Respiratory Chain or the Cytochrome Chain.

11

In anaerobic respiration the final hydrogen/electron acceptor is

In anaerobic respiration there are inorganic final hydrogen/electron acceptors other than oxygen that
are driving the oxidation and reduction reactions

12

Why are there fewer ATP generated in anaerobic

However, since the pull of these other inorganic acceptors is less than oxygen, there are fewer ATP’s generated.

13

Glycolysis total ATP

2 ATPs by substrate level phosphorylation

6 ATPs by oxidative phosphorylation in ETC. (2 NAD each with a 2H are produced) Note, each 2H carried
to ETC on NAD yields 3 ATPs. 2 X 3 = 6

14

Intermediate or Preparatory Step total ATP

6 ATPs by oxidative phosphorylation in ETC. (An NAD with a 2H is produced for each pyruvic acid that is
converted into an acetyl group. Two acetyl groups are made from each glucose, as two pyruvic acids are
made from each glucose).

15

Krebs Cycle total ATP

2 ATPs by substrate level phosphorylation
18 ATPs by oxidative phosphorylation in ETC. (6 2H are delivered to ETC on NAD per glucose).
4 ATPs by oxidative phosphorylation in ETC. (2 2H are delivered to ETC on FAD per glucose).

16

Aerotolerant anaerobes

can live in the presence of O2, but cannot use O2 as the terminal acceptor. Make more than 2, but less than 38 ATPs per glucose

17

Facultative anaerobes

will use O2 when it is present and make the full complement of 38 ATPs per glucose. When O2 is not available they will switch to anaerobic respiration utilizing another inorganic hydrogen/electron acceptor. Under these conditions they can make more than 2, but less than 38 ATPs per glucose.

18

Obligate anaerobes

O2 is toxic. They do not use or survive in the presence of O2. Other inorganic hydrogen/electron acceptors are used. Make more than 2, but less than 38 ATPs per
glucose.

19

examples of macromolecular polymers

polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and DNA

20

macromolecular polymers can

They can all be entered into the metabolic pathways and be catabolized to generate ATP. Breakdown units from these polymers, enter glycolysis or the Krebs cycle at various points.

21

proteins are broken down into

amino acids. The amino acids go through a
process known as deamination (lose their amino group) prior to entering the energy pathways.

22

Lipids are broken down into

glycerol and fatty acids before these substances can be entered.

23

Two types of nucleic acids

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid).

24

Nucleic acids are made up of

repeating subunits known as nucleotides

25

Each nucleotide consists of

1 of 4 nitrogenous bases, a 5C sugar and a phosphate group

26

purines

Adenine and guanine

27

pyrimidines

cytosine, thymine and uracil

28

DNA nucleotide

A. Nitrogenous bases (1 per nucleotide)
1. Adenine
2. Guanine
3. Cytosine
4. Thymine
B. 5C sugar is deoxyribose
C. Phosphate group

29

RNA nucleotide

A. Nitrogenous bases (1 per nucleotide)
1. Adenine
2. Guanine
3. Cytosine
4. Uracil
B. 5C sugar is ribose
C. Phosphate group