Flashcards in Lecture 12 & 13 - Abdomina viscera Deck (71):
Describe the oesophagus
muscular tube - 25cm starting at the pharynx
abdominal esophagus is about 1.23 - enters stomach from the right side
Where are the narrowings of the esophagus?
proximal part - pharyngeal-oesophageal junction
middle - where the left main bronchus arch of aorta press on it
distal end - where it passes through the diaphragm
What is the artery/vein suply of the cervical, thoracic and abdo parts of the oesphagus?
Cervical - inferior thyroid artery and the brachio-cephalic (systemic)
Thoracic - oes. branches of aorta. Azygous
Abdo - Left gastric a.
L gastric portal vein
the abdo part of the azygous drains to the..
portal veinous system
What is a hiatus hernia?
upwards projection of fundus thorugh the diaphragm
What is a sliding hernia?
oesophagus moving back up - cardia pushed up through the diaphragm
What is the name of proximal opening of the stomach?
cardiac orifice - where the oesphagus enters
What is the name of distal opening of the stomach?
The pyloric canal is a...
true anatomical sphincter
The body of the stomach narrow distally to form the
Pyloric antrum - the even smaller part is the canal
The lesser curvature is connected to the undersurface of the liver by a...
double fold of mesentery
What is the greater omentum?
fatty apron - double fold of mesntery from the greate curvature - obscures the rest of the abdo viscera
The interior of the stomach is lined by ...
mucosal folds - rugae
true or False
the rugae become greater in pronience as you get further distally
Is the duodenum retro-intra peritoneal?
duodenum is directly related to which post. wall muscle ?
The first part of the duodenum is __long - the ___hits these part first so its the site of ulcers commonly
The first part of the duodenum is 5cm long - the acid hits these part first so its the site of ulcers commonly
The vertical descent f the duodemum is on psoas, between the hilum of the _____ and the _______
The vertical descent f the duodemum is on psoas, between the hilum of the kidney and the pancrease
Where is the major duodenal papilla located?
halfway down the descending (2)
Where are the minor duodenal papilla and what is it for?
superior to the major one
for the accessory duct of the pancreas
how lonng is the second part od the duodenum/
the 3rd part of duodenum goes across from what to what?
Right psoas, across the IVC and aorta to the Left psoas - directly related to the superior meseteric artery (they hook over the front of duodenum)
There are ____ of small intestine
The first __% is jejunum and the __% is ileum
40% - jejunum
60% - ileum
There are more arcades in the..
There is no distinct mark between the jejunum and ileum.
Which quadrant is each in
Jejunum - LUQ
ileum - RLQ
What is thicker walls, more mucosal folds and larger in diameter
The mesentery tends to be less fatty in the _____
jejunum - vessels are easier to see
ileum ends at the ...
ileocecal opening - sometimes called the valve. Actually a thickening of mucosal fold covering a smooth muscle sphincter
THe large intestine has a circular inner later and an outer band divided into the 3 longitudinal bands, what are these called
tinea coli (discrete bands)
what is haustra?
The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation, which give the colon its segmented appearance. The taenia coli run the length of the large intestine. Because the taenia coli are shorter than the intestine, the colon becomes sacculated between the tenia coli, forming the haustra.
There is a second anatomical sphincter in the _____ opening
What are the omental tenia?
Where does the appendix attach?
cecum - where the 3 tenia meet
What is within the appendix?
A whole lot of lymphoid nodule
What is retrocecal appendix?
When it is turned up and back along the caecum
The sigmoid colon is in which bit?
Takes the GIT to the centre line to form the anal canal
What is the right colic flexure?
where the ascending colum beomes the transverse colon
Left colic flexure - transverse - descending colon
Which quadrant is the liver in?
The liver attaches to the ant. abdo wall at the _____
in the uterus the baby receives blood via the umbilical vein to the liver
The diaphragmatic surface is divided into how many lobes? what divided them?
2 LOBES - DIVIDED BY THE FALCIFORM ligament
What is the falciform lig.?
Double fold of peritoneum
connects it to the anterior wal
what is the round round ligament?
obliterated umbilical vein
runs in the free inferior edge of the falciform ligament
The junction between the two surfaces of the liver is the ..
sharp inferior border
The superior surface of the liver is at what rib?
5th rib - liver is largely enclosed by the rib cage
What are all the impression on the Right lobe, visceral surface of the liver (and their locations):
Colic impression - inferior, Right lobe
renal impression - right kidney - right lobe (also supraardenal impression above)
Duodenal impression - next to gallbladder - right lobe
What are all the impression on the Leftlobe, visceral surface of the liver (and their locations):
What are the extra lobes on the posterior surface of the liver?
Quadrate lobe (inferior )
cordate love (superior)
True or False
The right and left hepatic ducts function separately
true or false
The hepatic veins are associated with the hilum of the liver
false - go straight into the IVC
The hilum of the liver is known as the ...
porta hepatis, fromposter to anterior:
Where does ligamentum teres run?
Left hand groove - in line with the gallbladder
Can you see the nerves and lymphatics at the porta hepatis?
The _____ _____joints the visceral surface of the liver and spans out to cover it
The strucutes of the _____ _______ run between the two layers at the free edge of the lesser omentum
Which artery divides into left and right and provides the liver itself with nourishment?
The cytic + hepatic duct =
common bile duct
What are the parts of the common bile duct path
1. Passage through the free edge of the lesser omentum (only extends to the duodenum)
2. Passes behind the first part of the duodenum
3. Goes behind the head of the pancreas in a groove between the head and the 2nd duodenum
4. Enters the 2nd part of duodenum at the major duodenal papilla (surrounded by sphincter of otti)
Sphinter of odii surrounds...
what is its action?
the terminal part of the pancreatic duct and the part of the common bile duct.
unless there is something in the duodenum that requires bile, the sphincter will contract
true or False
The gall bladder has its own artery and its veins drain into the systemic system
The gall bladder has its own artery BUT its veins drain into the portal system
Which part of the gallbladder lies in the visceral surface of the liver?
true or false
The fundus of the gallbladder usually projects beyond the inf. edge of the liver
The tail of the pancreas is related to the hilum of the ___
What is the wedge shaped prolongation of the pancreas? (after the head)
lies behind the superior mesenteric vessels
Is the pancreas retroperitoneal?
True or False
The neck and bdy curve over the vertebral column , the aorta and IVC
What does the accessory pancreatic duct do?
Drains the lower part of the head and the uncinate process, then joins the doudenal about an inch higher through the minor duodemal papilla
Descreibe the spleen?
oval shaped collection of lyph tissue - size of clenched fist
very very vascularised
smooth diaphagmatic surface
The visceral srface of the spleen bears the imprints of...
the splanchic flexure and gastric imprint fromthe fundus (stomach) and renal imprint from the left Kidney
What is in the spleen's hilum?
just artery and vein - no duct - associated with the tail of the pancreas