Lecture 12 & 13 - Abdomina viscera Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 12 & 13 - Abdomina viscera Deck (71):
1

Describe the oesophagus

muscular tube - 25cm starting at the pharynx

abdominal esophagus is about 1.23 - enters stomach from the right side

2

Where are the narrowings of the esophagus?

proximal part - pharyngeal-oesophageal junction

middle - where the left main bronchus arch of aorta press on it

distal end - where it passes through the diaphragm

3

What is the artery/vein suply of the cervical, thoracic and abdo parts of the oesphagus?

Cervical - inferior thyroid artery and the brachio-cephalic (systemic)

Thoracic - oes. branches of aorta. Azygous


Abdo - Left gastric a.
L gastric portal vein

4

the abdo part of the azygous drains to the..

portal veinous system

5

What is a hiatus hernia?

upwards projection of fundus thorugh the diaphragm

6

What is a sliding hernia?

oesophagus moving back up - cardia pushed up through the diaphragm

7

What is the name of proximal opening of the stomach?

cardiac orifice - where the oesphagus enters

8

What is the name of distal opening of the stomach?

pyloric opening

9

The pyloric canal is a...

true anatomical sphincter

10

The body of the stomach narrow distally to form the

Pyloric antrum - the even smaller part is the canal

11

The lesser curvature is connected to the undersurface of the liver by a...

double fold of mesentery

12

What is the greater omentum?

fatty apron - double fold of mesntery from the greate curvature - obscures the rest of the abdo viscera

13

The interior of the stomach is lined by ...

mucosal folds - rugae

14

true or False

the rugae become greater in pronience as you get further distally

True

15

Is the duodenum retro-intra peritoneal?

retroperitoneal

16

duodenum is directly related to which post. wall muscle ?

psoas major

17

The first part of the duodenum is __long - the ___hits these part first so its the site of ulcers commonly

The first part of the duodenum is 5cm long - the acid hits these part first so its the site of ulcers commonly

18

The vertical descent f the duodemum is on psoas, between the hilum of the _____ and the _______

The vertical descent f the duodemum is on psoas, between the hilum of the kidney and the pancrease

19

Where is the major duodenal papilla located?

halfway down the descending (2)

20

Where are the minor duodenal papilla and what is it for?

superior to the major one

for the accessory duct of the pancreas

21

how lonng is the second part od the duodenum/

7.5cm

22

the 3rd part of duodenum goes across from what to what?

Right psoas, across the IVC and aorta to the Left psoas - directly related to the superior meseteric artery (they hook over the front of duodenum)

23

There are ____ of small intestine

The first __% is jejunum and the __% is ileum

4-6m

40% - jejunum
60% - ileum

24

There are more arcades in the..

ileum

25

There is no distinct mark between the jejunum and ileum.

Which quadrant is each in

Jejunum - LUQ

ileum - RLQ

26

What is thicker walls, more mucosal folds and larger in diameter

Jejunum

27

The mesentery tends to be less fatty in the _____

jejunum - vessels are easier to see

28

ileum ends at the ...

ileocecal opening - sometimes called the valve. Actually a thickening of mucosal fold covering a smooth muscle sphincter

29

THe large intestine has a circular inner later and an outer band divided into the 3 longitudinal bands, what are these called

tinea coli (discrete bands)

30

what is haustra?

The haustra (singular haustrum) of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation, which give the colon its segmented appearance. The taenia coli run the length of the large intestine. Because the taenia coli are shorter than the intestine, the colon becomes sacculated between the tenia coli, forming the haustra.

31

There is a second anatomical sphincter in the _____ opening

ileocecal

32

What are the omental tenia?

fat tags

33

Where does the appendix attach?

cecum - where the 3 tenia meet

34

What is within the appendix?

A whole lot of lymphoid nodule

35

What is retrocecal appendix?

When it is turned up and back along the caecum

36

The sigmoid colon is in which bit?

Takes the GIT to the centre line to form the anal canal

37

What is the right colic flexure?

where the ascending colum beomes the transverse colon

Left colic flexure - transverse - descending colon

38

Which quadrant is the liver in?

RUQ

39

The liver attaches to the ant. abdo wall at the _____

umbilicus

in the uterus the baby receives blood via the umbilical vein to the liver

40

The diaphragmatic surface is divided into how many lobes? what divided them?

2 LOBES - DIVIDED BY THE FALCIFORM ligament

41

What is the falciform lig.?

Double fold of peritoneum

connects it to the anterior wal

42

what is the round round ligament?

obliterated umbilical vein

runs in the free inferior edge of the falciform ligament

43

The junction between the two surfaces of the liver is the ..

sharp inferior border

44

The superior surface of the liver is at what rib?

5th rib - liver is largely enclosed by the rib cage

45

What are all the impression on the Right lobe, visceral surface of the liver (and their locations):

Colic impression - inferior, Right lobe

renal impression - right kidney - right lobe (also supraardenal impression above)

Duodenal impression - next to gallbladder - right lobe


46

What are all the impression on the Leftlobe, visceral surface of the liver (and their locations):

Esophageal impression

Gastric impression

47

What are the extra lobes on the posterior surface of the liver?

Quadrate lobe (inferior )

cordate love (superior)

48

True or False

The right and left hepatic ducts function separately

true

49

true or false

The hepatic veins are associated with the hilum of the liver

false - go straight into the IVC

50

The hilum of the liver is known as the ...

porta hepatis

51

porta hepatis, fromposter to anterior:

portal vein
Hepatic artery
Bile duct

52

Where does ligamentum teres run?

Left hand groove - in line with the gallbladder

53

Can you see the nerves and lymphatics at the porta hepatis?

no

54

The _____ _____joints the visceral surface of the liver and spans out to cover it

lesser omentum

55

The strucutes of the _____ _______ run between the two layers at the free edge of the lesser omentum

porta hepatis

56

Which artery divides into left and right and provides the liver itself with nourishment?

Hepatic artery

57

The cytic + hepatic duct =

common bile duct

58

What are the parts of the common bile duct path

1. Passage through the free edge of the lesser omentum (only extends to the duodenum)

2. Passes behind the first part of the duodenum

3. Goes behind the head of the pancreas in a groove between the head and the 2nd duodenum

4. Enters the 2nd part of duodenum at the major duodenal papilla (surrounded by sphincter of otti)

59

Sphinter of odii surrounds...

what is its action?

the terminal part of the pancreatic duct and the part of the common bile duct.

unless there is something in the duodenum that requires bile, the sphincter will contract

60

true or False

The gall bladder has its own artery and its veins drain into the systemic system

False

The gall bladder has its own artery BUT its veins drain into the portal system

61

Which part of the gallbladder lies in the visceral surface of the liver?

Body

62

true or false

The fundus of the gallbladder usually projects beyond the inf. edge of the liver

true

63

The tail of the pancreas is related to the hilum of the ___

spleen

64

What is the wedge shaped prolongation of the pancreas? (after the head)

uncinate process

lies behind the superior mesenteric vessels

65

Is the pancreas retroperitoneal?

yes

66

True or False

The neck and bdy curve over the vertebral column , the aorta and IVC

true

67

What does the accessory pancreatic duct do?

Drains the lower part of the head and the uncinate process, then joins the doudenal about an inch higher through the minor duodemal papilla

68

Descreibe the spleen?

oval shaped collection of lyph tissue - size of clenched fist

very very vascularised

smooth diaphagmatic surface

69

The visceral srface of the spleen bears the imprints of...

the splanchic flexure and gastric imprint fromthe fundus (stomach) and renal imprint from the left Kidney

70

What is in the spleen's hilum?

just artery and vein - no duct - associated with the tail of the pancreas

71

Which ribs does the spleen relate to?

9,10,11

Fracture of either makes the spleen vulnerable to rupture and bleeding