Flashcards in Lecture 12 - CF - Therapies Deck (40):
List the main therapies of CF
• Pancreatic insufficiency treatment
• Novel therapies
What are the goals of CF treatment?
• Maintenance of lung function (infections & airway clearance)
• Adequate growth
• Management of complications
Describe the physiotherapy
• ACBT: active cycle of breathing techniques
• AD: autogenic drainage
• PEP: positive expiratory pressure
Why are antimicrobials used in CF therapy?
How are antimicrobials administered in CF?
Describe pathogen acquisition over time in patients with CF
Type of pathogen acquired depends on age
Most people will end up with Pseudomonas aeruginosa
How is infection controlled?
Segregation to decrease patient-patient spread
What are some novel respiratory therapeutics?
Give specific examples
Describe the importance of nutrition and associated therapy in CF
• close monitoring
• contact with specialist dietician
• increased intakes (120-150%) due to increased losses
• high salt, protein and salt diet
• supplemental feeds
• salt supplements
• vitamin supplements (fat soluble)
Why is adequate growth important in CF?
Improved growth equates with improved lung function
Which vitamin supplements are especially important for people with CF?
Fat soluble vitamins
What is the treatment for pancreatic insufficiency?
• Enteric coated pancreatic enzyme microspheres
• contains lipase, protease, amylase
• taken with all fat, protein & carbohydrate containing meals
What are some future therapies for CF?
• Novel inhaled antibacterials
• New anti-inflammatories
• Correction of underlying gene defect
• Protein rescue therapy
Outline the stages of clinical trials
• low doses in healthy volunteers
• small cohort
• examine the effectiveness of drug
• large cohort
• confirm previous findings
→ To patients
What is Sildenafil used for?
• Phosphodiesterase inhibitor
• it's an anti-inflammatory
What is KB001A?
What is its function?
• It's a humanised Fab fragment
• Specific for a Pseudomonas virulence determinant
• Decreases inflammation
What are the types of novel antibacterials?
• Dry inhaled power
• Nebulised drugs
Describe gene therapy of CF
What are the barriers to this therapy?
• Functional version of the gene introduced to epithelial cells of the respiratory tract
• the lung resilient against foreign material
→ mucociliary elevator
→ mucous layer
→ get into nucleus
What is a GTA?
What are some potential GTAs?
Gene transfer agent
1. Viral GTA
2. Non viral GTA
• Cationic liposome
Describe gene therapy with viral vectors
There were multiple clinical trials in the 1990's
Describe gene therapy with non-viral vectors
• Liposomes containing plasmid DNA with function gene encoded
Short duration of efficacy
What is GL67A/ pGM169?
This is the cationic liposome with the DNA plasmid w/ the functional CFTR gene
Describe the clinical trials of gene therapy
• 30 to date, most still in Phase I and II
• Still testing safety, not the clinical outcome
• Most have reported transient efficacy (up to 4 weeks)
What is trans-differentiation?
This is when a (stem) cell can convert from one cell type to another
Describe stem cell treatment
A small area of research
The results of the trials, however, have been very detrimental
Describe protein rescue therapy
Depends on the underlying class of mutation
Using drugs to overcome this dysfunctional protein
What is Ivacaftor?
Describe its function
A protein rescue therapy
• for Class III mutations (dysregulated channel, i.e. gating defect)
• a 'Potentiator'
• Ivacaftor binds the channel and allows it to function normally (i.e., keeps the channel open)
What are the pros and cons of Ivacaftor?
• improvement in lung function
• increased weight
• decreased symptoms
• delayed exacerbation
• reduction in sweat chloride concentrations
• very expensive
How was Ivacaftor identified?
High throughput screening
Why is Ivacaftor so good, and why is it important?
It addresses the underlying defect
It is the first CF therapeutic to do so
When was Ivacaftor FDA approved?
What class of mutation is F508del?
Class II (defective processing of CFTR protein)
What is Lumacaftor?
Describe its function
• A protein rescue therapy
• A 'corrector': used for Class II mutations
• increases the amount of CFTR trafficked to the cell surface
Does Lumacaftor function well on its own?
This drug only gets the mutated CFTR to the surface.
Need a potentiator in addition (e.g. Ivacaftor)
What are VX-661 and VX-809?
Compare the classes of mutations for which Lumacaftor, Ataluren & Ivacaftor are used
Lumacaftor: class II; F508del mutation
Ivacaftor: class III
Ataluren: class I
Describe the efficacy of Lumacaftor
With Lumacaftor, CFTR expression is 15% of wild-type
With Lumacaftor + Ivacaftor, CFTR expression is 30% or wild-type
What is Ataluren?
Describe its function and efficacy seen in clinical trials.
• Protein rescue therapeutic
• Used for Class I mutations
• Promotes read through of mRNA despite stop codons
• failed to delivery improvement in FEV
• except those not taking nebuliser amino glycoside
What is the type of mutation in Class I?
Nonsense mutation: stop codon prevents read through of mRNA