Lecture 12; Motor Control + movement disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 12; Motor Control + movement disorders Deck (28):
1

Describe how the motor system does not act alone;

The motor system controls movement together with sensory systems

(feedback)

2

Give an example of how the sensory system acts with with the motor system?

Feedback i.e did that movement actually happen? - propioceptors and visual system say so


Thus allowing planned movement

3

How can motor function be affected by sensory loss?

Disoders can develop when the sensory system is effected

4

What are the types of LMNs?

Alpha and gamma

5

What is the motor unit?

Alpha motor neuron
Synapse
Muscle fibre it innervates

6

Where do motor neurons located?

- Brain
- Anterior Ventral Horns
- 12 cranial nerves

7

What are the alpha motor neurons also known as?

The final common pathway


- convergence of inhibitory and excitatory synapses (final output message to muscles)

8

What to lower motor neurons recieve synpatic inputs from?

-Descending tracts
cortico-spinal(pyr.)
rubro-spinal
vestibulo-spinal
reticulo-spinal
-Spinal (brainstem) interneurons
-Peripheral receptors (Group Iaafferent fibres from muscle spindles)

9

What are the types of frequent symptoms of movement disorders?

- Paralysis
- Hypertonia
- Ataxia

10

What are abnormal involuntary movements?

Epileptic fit
Tremor in PD

11

What are the possible locations of lesions in motor units?

- Cell bodies
- Muscle fibre
- Motor end plates(myopathies)
- Axon

12

What is the most common form of myopathy?

muscular dystrophy

13

What is muscular dystrophy?

A group of inheriteddisorders characterized by deficits in muscle proteins and progressivemuscle wasting and weakness (withoutprimary structural abnormality in motoneurons)

14

What is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children?

Duchennemuscular dystrophy (DMD)

15

What is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults?

Myotonic muscular dystrophy

16

What is myotonia?

Myotonia: delayedrelaxation of amuscle after a strong contraction

17

What happens in myotonia?

Wasting and weaknessof muscles

18

What is the cause of myotonia?

Up to 2000'triple’ (CTG) repeats in chromosome19 coding for a protein kinase myotonin

19

What is myasthenia gravis?

- Muscle weaking without wasting

•Autoimmune disease
•Fewer ACh binding sites
EPPs (decreased)
Synaptic transmission (decreased)

20

What is botulism?

Food poisoning (Clostridium botulinum)Botulinum toxinsproduced under anaerobic conditions;1 μg kills an adult human if injected


Death by muscle paralysis

21

What is the effect of botulism toxins?

Muscle paralysis due to ACh release

22

Where does botulism toxin bind?

Toxins bind to nerve terminals, are internalized by endocytosis,and cause proteolysisof several membrane proteins involvedin vesicle ‘docking’ and neurotransmitter release(e.g. SNAP-25and Syntaxin)

23

What types of muscles do botulism toxin effect?

•Striated and smooth muscles affected

Disruptions in the autonomic nervous system (dry mouth, posturalhypotension, severe constipation

24

What happens in infant botulism?

Infant botulism (honey, contaminated milk products)Constipation, lethargy, weakness, difficulty in feeding, can progress to flaccid paralysis and respiratory arrest

25

What else can the botulism toxin be used for?

- Severe neck spams
- Striabismus
- Upper and lower body spasticity
- Dystonias
- Hyperhydrosis
- GI and urinary disorders
- Migraine
- Depression

26

What is wallerian degeneration?

Trauma to the distal part of axon.
-loss of synaptic transmission (on electrical stimulation of the axon) within ~ 24 hrs
-degeneration within days (due to the loss of the ‘axon survival factor’ NMNAT2, secreted by cell body)

27

What else can happen when distal axons are damaged?

Axon regeneration(1-2 mm / day),
facilitated by arrays of Schwann cells

Re-innervationof muscles

Re-myelinationof axons (partial)

; in some cases functional recovery

Note: Wallerian (did these experiments)

28

Describe how the axon regrowth occurs;

- NMNAT2 synthesised by cell body
- Histological changes occur to the cell body too (chromotolysis (after axon cut)
- Ribosomes shift distally to dendrites

- New growth cone forms expands and tries to reach target, but relies on surviving undamaged schwann cells to to secrete something and direct growth


(doesnt happen to unmyelonated axons)