Lecture 13 & 14 - Marine Mammals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 & 14 - Marine Mammals Deck (19):
1

Give six key points on marine mammals

> Veterbre, well developed CNS and brain + potential 2 way communication
> Warm blooded - homoeostatic control, maintenance of core temp
> Give birth to live young
> Feeds young with milk from mammary glands (wheening)
> Breath air (adaptations)
> Epidermis with hair (may be reduced)

2

Give four adaptations of marine mammals

> Swim, including diving for long peroids to depths
> Control their core body temp
> Come to the surface to breath air
> Give birth to live young and suckle them

Adaptations between organisms vary greatly from mammal to mammal

3

Give the four orders of marine mammals and some examples

> Pinnipeds - seal, fur seals, walruses
> Carnivora - Polar bear, sea otter
> Sirenians - Manatees and dugong
> Ceatceans - Whales and Dolphins

4

What is the name for seals in latin and of which family is it from? how many types are there

Name = Phocidae (seals)
Family = Pinnipeds
18 types

5

4 key features of a Phocidae

> Internal ear with no external features
> Clawed front flippers
> Walk only on front flippers
> Swim with hind flippers

6

Explain the distributions of Phocidae and the two key environments and associated risks

Mainly polar!
>Arctic seals - have a greater range of threats from humans (fishing) and predation (killer whales)
>Antarctic seals - Reduced predation (leapord seal) and reduced effects from us (pollution reduced etc..)

7

What are the two warm species of seals

Med monk seal
Hawian monk seal

8

What are adaptations of phocidae to temperatures

> Blubber, high insulating and rich source of energy (wheening)
> Caoillaries in blubber and skin constrict (vasoconstriction) to reduce blood flow to periphery

9

Explain the diving ability of seals

Can hold their breath for ages due to high oxygen store in body tissues as well as Bradychardua - which is slowing of the heart, cardiac output reduced by 20%

10

What is the important of lactate dehydrogenase

It stops of the build up of toxins due to lack of oxygen ( why muscles ache )

11

Explain reproduction in phocidae

I stud can mate with 30/40 through sexual reproduction (nice). Give birth on land and young develop real quick. Feed young from mammary glad which is 40 -50% fat.

12

How can wheening depend on other biotic factors

If they are prime pray for killer whale / leapord sea then they will wheen quicker

13

Name the 6 types of Arctic seals (fuck the latin names)

Ringed
Bearded
Harp
Hooded
Spotted
Ribbon

14

Name the 4 types of antartic seals (no latin names)

Crabeater
Weddell
Lepoard
Ross

15

What do seals feed upon in the arctic

Mostly fish (mainly cod) shrimps and squid, bearded seal feeds on benthic organisms

16

What do seals feed on in the antarctic

Apart from the leopard seal (apex) feed on krill. Lepoard seal feeds upon smaller seals and fish

17

What is special to the crab eater seal

It has specially adapted teeth (most special in marine) which is a series of fine spites for sieving out krill

18

What is the difference from fur seals to seals (3)

> Ears extend out of the head
> Front flippers are longer and used for swimming
> Can walk on land using both rear and front flippers

19

What are the differences between sea lions and fur seals (2)

Sea lion = rounded snout, short fur
Fur Seals = Long snout, long fur