Lecture 13: Clinical Correlations (Big Picture) (Stone) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13: Clinical Correlations (Big Picture) (Stone) Deck (28):
0

2 causes of acute tubular necrosis

ischemia or toxins

1

Why is the proximal tubule and thick ascending loop of Henle especially susceptible to ischemic or toxic injury?

They have a very high metabolic rate (very oxygen dependent) and have many transport functions

2

hypovolemia

chronic dehydration

3

diarrhea --> renal blood flow

decreases

4

Hypoxic injury to prox. tubule and thick ascending limb results in:

-rapid depletion of ATP
-inactivity of Na/K ATPase pump
-increased intracellular Ca
-cell swelling/death

5

increased pressure in Bowman's capsule due to intraluminal obstruction --> GFR

decreases

6

isosthenuria

failure to concentrate urine

7

sever proteinuria + low blood protein (albumin) indicates:

Glomerular disease

8

What could you look at to differentiate between pre-renal and renal azotemia?

specific gravity of urine. Prerenal should have concentrated urine.

9

deposition of Ag-Ab complexes along basement membrane in the subendothelial space of a glomerulus leads to:

damage to basement membrane in glomerulus and leakage

10

dysuria

difficult or painful urination

11

stranguria

straining to urinate, with the normal rate and flow of voiding decreased and effort increased

12

pollakuria

frequent voiding of small amounts of urine

13

urinary incontinence

involuntary voiding of urine

14

anuria

absence of urine production

15

oliguria

scant or subnormal urine production

16

hematuria

blood in the urine

17

hemaglobinuria

high Hb in the urine

18

myoglobinuria

high myoglobin in the urine

19

bilirubinuria

high bilirubin in the urine

20

pyruria

pus in the urine

21

crystalluria

crystals in the urine

22

proteinuria

proteins in the urine

23

glucosuria

glucose in the urine

24

ketonuria

ketones in the urine

25

isosthenuria

urine osmolality or specific gravity is in the same range as glomerular filtrate; interpretation requires knowledge of hydration status.

26

uremia

combination of clinical signs, impaired metabolic processes and alterations in organ function resulting from failure to excrete waste products through urine

27

azotemia

increased concentrations of urea, nitrogen, and creatinine in blood.
-prerenal = azotemia + concentrated urine
-renal = azotemia + isosthenuria
-postrenal = azotemia + variable urine concentration

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