Lecture 13: Glands/Lymph/Blood Supply to Abdominal Cavity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13: Glands/Lymph/Blood Supply to Abdominal Cavity Deck (103):
1

Role of inferior vena cava

Returns deoxygenated blood to the heart

2

Role of venous portal system

Allows absorbed nutrients to be returned to liver via hepatic portal vein.

3

What is the one main lymphoid organ in the abdomen

Spleen

4

Where does the spleen reside

Upper left quadrant (left hypochondriac region)

5

What is the largest aggregation of lymphoid tissue in the body?

Spleen

6

What are the two main regions of the spleen

Visceral and diaphragmatic surface

7

What are the subdivisions of the visceral surfaces

Gastric, renal, colic sufaces, and hilus

8

Gastric surface

Superior boarder that comes into contact with the stomach *notched*

9

Renal surface

Mostly on the posterior aspect of the spleen where it contacts the left kidney

10

Colic surface

Contacts transverse colon

11

Renal hilus

Where the vessels enter and leave the spleen. 2 ligaments attach to the hilum

12

What are the 2 ligaments of the hilus

Gastrosplenic, and Splenorenal ligaments

13

Arterial blood supply to the spleen

Splenic artery

14

What arteries are contained in the gastrosplenic ligament?

Short gastric arteries and left gastroepiploic a.

15

What are the structures held in the splenorenal ligament

Tail of pancreas and splenic artery and vein

16

What are the two recesses that the spleen sits in

Renal and gastric recesses

17

Posterior to what ribs lies the spleen?

Ribs 9-11

18

What are the four lobes of the liver

Right (big), Left, Caudate, and Quadrate lobes

19

What are the two fossae in the right lobe

Fossa for galbladder and inferior vena cava

20

Location of caudate lobe

Posterior, lies between the fissure for the ligamentum venous and the fossa for the inferior vena cava

21

Quadrate lobe location and shape

Quadrangle anterior lies between the fissure for the ligamentum teres and the gallbladder

22

Left functional lobe

Includes the caudate and quadrate lobe

23

Blood supply to the left functional lobe

Left hepatic a.

24

Right functional lobe blood supply

Right hepatic a.

25

What are the two main surfaces of the liver

Diaphragmatic (dome shaped) and visceral surfaces (flat)

26

Is the liver covered in paritoneum?

Yes except for the bare area

27

What creates the bare area

Reflection of coronary ligaments on diaphragmatic surface

28

What are the 5 peritoneal ligaments that attach to the liver

Falciform ligament, lesser omentum, ligamentum teres, ligamentum venosum, and coronary ligament

29

Falciform ligament

Attaches the liver to the anterior body wall, path go umbilical vein, derivative of ventral mesentery

30

Ligamentum teres

Remnant of umbilical v. contained within falciform ligament

31

Ligamentum venosum

Remnant of ductus venosum, connected to portal vein via inferior vena cava in embryo

32

Coronary ligaments

Attach liver to diaphragm

33

Lesser omentum

Connects stomach to liver

34

What are the two ligaments in the lesser omentum

Hepatoduodenal and hepatogastric ligament

35

Role of umbilical vein in embryo

Brough O2 and nutrients from mom to fetus

36

What was the role of the ductus venosum in embryo

Role was to shunt blood away from the liver and into inferior vena cava remanent of ductus venosum

37

Porta hepatis

H shaped fissure on the visceral surface of the liver. Considered the gateway into the liver. Contains the left and right hepatic arteries, right and left bile ducts, and hepatic portal vein

38

What does the hepatic artery proper arise from

common hepatic a.

39

What are the two branches of the hepatic artery proper

left and right hepatic arteries (supply the left/quadrate/caudate lobes and the right lobe respectively)

40

Different regions of the gallbladder

Fundus, body, neck

41

Where does the gallbladder lay?

The the visceral surface of the liver in the gallbladder fossa

42

Is the gallbladder covered in peritoneum

Yes

43

Function of the gallbladder

Concentrate and store bile

44

Where is the bile in the gallbladder released

Cystic duct

45

What is the arterial supply to the gall bladder

Cystic artery

46

What does the cystic artery branch off of?

The right hepatic a.

47

What are the origins of the left and right bile ducts

liver

48

What do the left and right bile ducts combine to form?

The common hepatic duct

49

What makes up the Common bile duct

When the cystic duct joints the common hepatic duct

50

Where does the common bile duct enter to secrete bile?

Descending duodenum in ampulla of vater

51

What guards the entrance of the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct at the major duodenal papilla?

The sphincter of Oddi

52

What does the sphincter of Oddi consist of?

-Choledochal sphincter around the distal portion of the common bile duct
-Hepatorenal sphincter around the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct

53

When is bile released?

When chyme is present in the duodenum

54

If there is no food in the duodenum with the sphincter of Oddi be open or closed?

Closed- allowing the bile to travel back into gallbladder.

55

Choledochal sphincter

This is the part of the sphincter of Oddi that controls the common bile duct. strips= muscle. Part over common bile duct (strongest part)

56

Is the pancreas an endocrine or exocrine gland?

Both. Endocrine function= Secrete insulin. Exocrine function= release lipase and other digestive enzymes

57

What regions of the abdomen are the pancreas located in

The epigastric and left hypochondriac

58

3 parts of the pancrease

head, body, tail

59

Where does the head of the pancreas sit

in the C-shaped curve of the duodenum

60

Uncinate process

Region of the head of the pancreas that lies posterior to the superior mesenteric vessels

61

What part of the pancreas is not secondarily retroperitoneal and why?

The tail because it is taken up by the splenorenal ligament

62

Blood supply to the pancreas

superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal a.a and splenic a. (to body and tail)

63

Embryology of the ventral and dorsal parts of the pancreas

large dorsal and small ventral component. Fusions of these two creates a main and accessory pancreatic duct.

64

Divisions of arterial branches that supply the abdominal wall

Unpaired visceral, paired visceral, paired parietal, unpaired parietal , and terminal branches

65

List the unpaired arteries in the abdominal wall

Celiac trunk, Superior mesenteric, and Inferior mesenteric a.

66

What are the paired visceral arteries in the abdomen

Renal arteries, testicular/ovarian arteries, and middle suprarenal arteries

67

What are the Unpaired Parietal arteries of the abdomen?

Median sacaral artery

68

What are the paired parietal arteries of the abdomen

Inferior phrenic a. and lumbar a.

69

Embryonic formation of the pancreas

There are 2 pancreases when we start. Little ventral pancreatic bud and large dorsal pancreatic bud in embryo. Duodenum straight at this point. The gut then rotates causing ventral pancreatic bud with bile duct and duodenum to swing to the back. Ventral pancreatic bud joins the dorsal pancreatic bud. This is why the Head is always lower than the body and tail.

70

At what vertebral level is the celiac trunk

T12

71

Where does the superior mesenteric a emerge

Behind the pancreas (can't see well)

72

Where does the inferior mesenteric a. emerge

Comes out near umbilicus close to the bifrication of the two common iliac arteries

73

Arteries in celiac trunk

I know these well- Some reminders

-Short gastric arteries supply the funds of the stomach.
-Anastomoses- Inferior and superior pancreaticoduodenal a.a, left and right gastroepiploic a.a. and left and right gastric a.a

74

List the organs supplied by the celiac trunk

Esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, duodenum (forgut portion), spleen

75

What anastomoses represents dual origin of the duodenum from the midgut and forgut

The anastomose between the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodeunal a.a

76

Where does the superior mesenteric artery arise from?

Ventral surface of aorta slightly inferior to celiac trunk

77

What organs are supplied by the superior mesenteric a.

duodenum (midgut region), jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, proximal 2/3 of transverse colon.

78

1st branch of the superior mesenteric a.

-inferior pancreaticoduodenal trunk- supplies duodenum and anastomoses with superior pancreaticoduodenal a.

79

2nd branch of the superior mesenteric a.

Intestinal arteries- supplies jejunum and ileum forming a series of arches (arterial arcades and vasa recta)

80

3rd Branch of superior mesenteric a.

Ileocolic a.- Supplies cecum, appendix, and ascending colon

81

4th branch of superior mesenteric a

Right colic a.- ascending colon and hepatic fluxure- not commonly seen in majority of individuals (normally formed by anastomoses between the middle and ileocolic a.a)

82

5th branch of superior mesenteric a

Middle colic- Supplies 2/3 of transverse colon

83

Location of inferior mesenteric a

Just above the bifurcation of the aorta into the common iliac a.a

84

Organs supplied by inferior mesenteric a.

Remained of transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum,

85

1st Branch of the Inferior mesenteric a.

Left colic- supplies the 1/3 left portion of transverse colon and splenic flexor of descending colon. Has an inferior and superior branch

86

2nd branch of the inferior mesenteric a.

Sigmoid arteries- supply sigmoid colon (there are 4-6 sigmoid arteries)

87

3rd branch of inferior mesenteric a.

Superior rectal arteries- Supplies superior portion of the rectum

88

Marginal artery *important anastomose*

Between the middle colic and the superior branch of the left colic. This is important because it is a connection between the superior and inferior mesenteric a.a

89

Renal a

Bellow superior mesenteric a supplies the kidneys (paired visceral a.)

90

Testicular/ovarian a.

Supply testes and ovaries. High origin depicts the embryonic origin of these organs before their descent (paired visceral a.)

91

Middle suprarenal arteries

1 of three blood supplies to suprarenal gland (paired visceral a.)

92

Median sacral a

Only unpaired parietal a. arises at the bifurcation of aorta, supplies sacrum, anastomoses with the lateral sacral arteries from the internal iliac arteries

93

Inferior phrenic a.

Supplies diaphragm (Paired parietal a)

94

Lumbar arteries

Supplies muscles of posterior wall (Paired parietal a)

95

Inferior vena cava two confluences from...

Common iliac veins

96

At one vertebral level does the inferior vena cava pierce the diaphragm

T8

97

What is the normal direction of blood flow

Artery-capillary-vein

98

Direction of blood flow in hepatic portal system

Hepatic portal vein-sinusoids-inferior vena cava (Vein-sinus-vein)

99

Purpose of venous portal system

Return nutrients absorbed in GI tract to the liver to be metabolized

100

What are the 2 tributaries that form the hepatic portal vein

The inferior mesenteric v, superior mesenteric v. and splenic v (most of the time the inferior mesenteric v. does into the splenic v and not the hepatic portal v.)

101

Where does blood flow from the venous portal once the blood has been delivered to the liver

sinusoids-capilaries (nutrients absorbed)-Inferior vena cava

102

Anastomoses between systemic and portal circulation (5)

-left gastric v. (portal) to esophageal v. (systemic)

-Superior rectal v. (portal) with middle and inferior rectal v. (systemic)

-paraumbilical v (portal) with cutaneous v. of abdominal wall (superficial epigastric v.) (systemic)

-Splenic and pancreatic v. (portal) with renal veins (systemic)

-Colic veins with systemic retroperitoneal v.

103

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