Lecture 13: Integration of Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13: Integration of Metabolism Deck (23):
1

What organ can carry out all reactions in major pathways of metabolism?

ONLY LIVER

2

Key Molecules Acting as Metabolic Junction Points:

What are the fates of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE?

-Return to glucose
-Glycogen
-Pyruvate
-Ribose-5-P

3

Key Molecules Acting as Metabolic Junction Points:

Pyruvate fates?

-Acetyl-CoA
-Lactate
-Alanine
-OAA

4

Key Molecules Acting as Metabolic Junction Points:

Acetyl-CoA fates?

-CO2
-Ketone bodies
-Fatty acids

5

Preferred energy sources of different cells:

RBCs?

Glucose

6

Preferred energy sources of different cells:

Brain?

Glucose and Ketone bodies

7

Preferred energy sources of different cells:

Adipose?

Glucose and fatty acids

8

Preferred energy sources of different cells:

Liver?

Fatty acids

9

Preferred energy sources of different cells:

Muscles

Glucose, fatty acids, amino acids

10

Describe the general function of the LIVER in metabolism

-MVP OF METABOLISM

-Processes most incoming nutrients
-Responds quickly to dietary conditions
-Maintains constant concentrations of nutrients in blood
-Synthesizes and secretes proteins
-Processes toxins and wastes

11

Describe the influence of Adipose tissue on metabolism

-"The main assist"

-Synthesizes and store triglycerides as signaled by insulin
-Releases fatty acids and glycerol as signaled by glucagon/epi

12

Describe the BRAIN in relationship to metabolism

-A major energy consumer
-Uses 20% of total O2 consume by resting human (only 2% of body mass)

13

Describe the HEART in relationship to metabolism

-Exclusively aerobic
-Glucose, lactate, fatty acids, and ketone bodies serve as fuel
-No glycogen stores
-Lack of O2 leads to tissue death (MI)

14

Describe the SKELETAL MUSCLE in relationship to metabolism

-Rich in glycogen
-Glycogen readily broken down to G6P
-Lacks glucose 6-phosphatase, therefore muscle cannot export glucose
-Uses fatty acids and ketone bodies for energy

15

What is phosphagen

Regenerates ATP by phosphocreatine

16

Satiation signals:

Examples?

-Cholecystokinin (CCK)
-Glucagon like peptide-1

17

What peptide stimulates appetite?

Ghrelin

18

Long term control over caloric homeostasis:

Describe Leptin

Secreted by adipocytes

19

Long term control over caloric homeostasis:

Describe Insulin

Secreted by Beta Cells of pancrease

20

What metabolic processes occur in the liver?

-Glycogenolysis
-Gluconeogenesis
-Fatty acid oxidation
-Ketone body formation

21

What is the cellular energy sensor?

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)

22

What does AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) do?

Controls overall energy status of body

23

What stimulates AMPK?

Exercise, Adiponectin

***This increases catabolism
***This decreases anabolism