Lecture 14: Intro to Heart Sounds and Cardiac Valve Dysfunction (Hayward) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 14: Intro to Heart Sounds and Cardiac Valve Dysfunction (Hayward) Deck (25):
1

generation of heart sounds via

acceleration or deceleration of columns of blood (changes in rate of blood flow)

2

auscultation

act of listening to sounds of organs

3

2nd heart sound assoc. with

closing of semilunar valve

4

1st heart sound assoc. with

closing of AV valves

5

Cause of splitting of heart sounds during inspiration

RV staying open slightly longer than LV because there is more filling of RV and takes longer to get volume out than LV

6

"lub-dub"

at beginning and end of systolic contraction

7

3rd heart sound

not usually heard. Corresponds to deceleration of blood flowing into the ventricles. Occurs in early diastole

8

4th heart sound

not usually heard. Corresponds to oscillation of blood and cardiac chambers during atrial contraction.

9

AV block --> 1st heart sound

delayed 1st heart sound due to prolonged atrial contraction relative to ventricular contraction

10

Factors that may diminish heart sounds

obesity, effusion, decreased contractility

11

Factors that may increase heart sound intensity

youth, skinny, increased contractility, anemia

12

murmur + cause

abnormal, prolonged heart sound. Turinbulent flow through valvular defects

13

stenosis

narrowing of a valve

14

insufficient valve

no longer closes during appropriate cycle

15

diastolic murmur causes (3)

mitral and/or tricuspid stenosis, aortic valve regurgitation. Assoc. with when filling occurs in diastole

16

systolic murmur causes (3)

1) aortic valve insufficiency
2) aortic valve stenosis
3) ventricular-septal defect
Assoc. with when contraction occurs in systole

17

ventricular-septal defect

blood flows from LV to RV during systole

18

stenosis --> ventricular forces to eject blood volume

greater forces needed. Also increased pressure

19

Aortic stenosis --> Pressure in LV during systole

greatly increased

20

Mitral insufficiency is assoc. with what kind of murmur? ***

systolic murmur ***

21

Mitral regurgitation is assoc. with what heart sound?

audible 3rd heart sound

22

Mitral stenosis is assoc. with what kind of murmur?

diastolic murmur

23

Consequences of mitral valve stenosis? (3)

1) increased LA pressure
2) atrial dilation leaves atrium susceptible to fibrillation
3) increased pulmonary pressure --> pulmonary edema

24

Mitral insufficiency ***

blood is regurgitated from LV to LA during systole (diastolic/mitral regurgitation) ***

25

Consequences of mitral insufficiency (3)

1) atrial dilation
2) eventual dilation of all chambers
3) pulmonary hypertension

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