Lecture 15: Disease of the Upper RT 1 (Specht) Flashcards Preview

Cardiopulmonary (Estrada-Fall 2014) > Lecture 15: Disease of the Upper RT 1 (Specht) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 15: Disease of the Upper RT 1 (Specht) Deck (44):
1

sneezing is a sign of:

nasal or nasopharynx problem

2

infectious agents involved in feline URI

most common:
-feline herpes virus (FHV-1)
-feline calicivirus (FCV)
less common:
-chlamydiophila felis
-Bordatella bronchiseptica
-mycoplasma spp.
*combos of viral and bacterial infection possible

3

How is feline URI spread? signalment?

spread: contact w/ actively infected cats, carrier cats, fomites
signal: young, old, immunosuppressed

4

T/F: cats can be latent carriers for wks to yrs after resolution of URI

TRUE

5

Feline URI CS*

sneeze, nasal d/c, conjunctivitis w/ ocular d/c

6

specific CS assoc. with FRV**

cornal ulceration

7

specific CS assoc. with FCV**

oral ulceration

8

specific CS assoc. iwth chlamydiophila**

conjunctivitis

9

3 most common agents of feline URI**

FRV, FCV, chlamydiophila

10

CS of CHRONIC feline URI

-nasal d/c
-irreversible damage to mucosa/turbinates
-2ary bacterial infection common

11

feline URI dx based on:

-usually presumptive based on history/CS
-PCR
-chronic rhinitis

12

feline URI acute sign tx:

-supportive tx: nutrition, fuids, suction, nebulization, pediatric nasal decongestants
-abx RARELY needed (unless bact. infection suspected)
-DON'T use corticosteroids (makes bact. inf. worse, increases shedding of virus)
-good prognosis

13

feline URI chronic sign tx:

same as acute tx, but for long-term
-cure unlikely

14

supposed effects of lysine

increases risk of contracting and increases duration of URI

15

feline URI prevention

-avoid exposure
-vaccinate for FCV/FRV

16

T/F: chronic URIs less contagious thanacute

T

17

majority of nasal tumors are malignant/non-malignant

malignant

18

which nasal tumors most common in dogs?

carcinomas

19

which nasal tumors most common in cats?

adenocarcinoma, lymphoma

20

which nasal tumors occur in both dogs and cats?

fibrosarcomas, sarcomas

21

trans-veneral nasal tumors common in endemic areas

:)

22

nasal tumors more common in old/young?

old

23

CS of nasal tumors

-nasal discharge (often unilateral)
-sneezing
-dec. airflow
-face deformation
-weight loss, anorexia

24

nasal tumor dx

-rads
-CT (better)
-cytology and/or histo for definitive dx

25

nasal tumor tx

-sx excision of benign tumors
-malignant tumors:
-radiation 1st choice**
-sx excision
-chemo
-adjunctive tx (analgesics, NSAIDs, Abx)

26

nasal tumor prognosis

-poor w/o tx
-survival about 1 yr with radiation

27

nasopharyngeal polyps

-benign
-kittens/young cats**
-attached to base of Eustachian tube and can grow up into ear, pharynx, nasal cavity

28

CS of nasopharyngeal polyps

-stertor
-nasal d/c
-upper airway obstruction
-neuro signs possible: Horner's syndrome, head tilt, nystagmus

29

Dx/Tx/prognosis of nasopharyng. polyps

Dx:
-otic exam
-rads
-oropharyngeal exam*
-nasopharyngoscopy*
-histo
Tx: sx excision usually curative
Prog: excellent if entirely removed

30

types of fungal rhinitis

-aspergillosis (mostly dogs, doesn't cause mass)
-cryptococcosis (mostly cats, does cause mass)
-penicillium rhinosporidium, sporothrix other causative agents

31

most common systemic fungal disease in cats**

nasal cryptococcosis

32

CS of fungal rhinitis

-sneezing
-nasal d/c +/- blood
-granulomatous lesions, facial deformity, ulceration possible

33

nasal crypto dx and tx

Dx:
-cytology of nasal discharge*
-serology for Ag*
-histo
Tx:
-systemic fluconazole, itraconazole at least 1-2 months PAST resolution of CS*
-resistance to anti-fungal can develop
-normally good response to tx

34

what kind of dog nasal aspergillosis most common in?

-young/middle age
-immunocompetent
-dolichocephalic or mesocephalic
-German shepherds

35

Nasal aspergillosis CS

-nasal d/c
-nasal pain
-ulceration of external nares (which is also present in cancer, severe rhinitis)

36

Dx/Tx of nasal aspergillosis

Dx:
-false + or - from Ab serology, cytology, histopathology, and cultures
-skull rads and/or CT
-rhinoscopy allows direct visualization**
-must combine info from various tests*

37

Tx of nasal aspergillosis

topical clotrimazole, enilconazole applied inside nose with catheters or flushed through frontal sinus (high success rate)

38

bacterial rhinitis common/uncommon as primary nasal disease***

uncommon. Very common as 2ary complication of other nasal dz!!

39

which bacteria CAN act as primary pathogens?

Bordatella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia

40

lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis

-inflammatory condition likely caused by inhaled allergens or autoimmune origin
-rare
-char. by chronic nasal discharge +/- sneezing
-histopath. can miss true underlyin disease such as tumor/granuloma
-Tx w/ corticosteroids +/- short-term Abx

41

tooth root abcesses and oronasal fistulas are usually concurrent with obvious dental dz or visible fistula

:)

42

most common source of foreign bodies causing nasal dz

plant material, quill

43

CS assoc. with congenital abnormalities causing nasal dz

dysphagia

44

allergic rhinitis

-uncommon manifestation of allergy
CS: sneeze, nasal d/c, can be seasonal
Dx: respond to removal of allergen, eosinophilic inflamm. in nasal biopsy
Tx: remove allergen, antihistamines, corticosteroids, hyposensitization?