____is a specific environment in which an organism lives
____changes through time varying from place to place
geographic range, spatial distribution, size, density, demography are all characteristics of ______.
Data on births, survival and mortality of individuals within a population is an example of
Penguins living in Southern Hemisphere is an example of
Group of communities interacting with each other and with their shared physical(non-living) enviornment
Individuals are disturbed unpredictably within a uniform habitat
The sun, water, and mountains are considered
a single reproductive episode before death
_____ focuses on interactions of individuals within a population
Limit the size of a population and whose effects is dependent on the number of individuals in the population. Defines
____can limit population growth through density dependent effects
To explain the abundance and distribution of organisms is __________.
Major Goal of Ecology
Sea turtle comes ashore, digs a hole, deposits dozens of eggs, and then heads back to see. Returns a year later and does the same thing. Is an example of
Two monkey's fighting for a banana is an example of
High population density decreases individual growth rate, adult size, and survival of plants and animals. Is an example of
Hawks feeding on mice impacts traits of mouse population leading to....
selection for fur color as a camouflage
____curves show a constant probability of dying at any age
The current abundance and distribution of kelp is a result of _____.
predation (Ex. Urchins controlling kelp)
Individuals group together due to patchy habitats, social groups, or reproductive patterns
____curve reflect high juvenile mortality, followed by period of low mortality, followed by period of low mortality once offspring reach a critical size
_____refers to selection of traits that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring
maximum number of individuals that an environment can support indefinitely (Resources are limited)
That lifetime strategies of growth and reproduction are shaped by natural selection to produce the largest possible number of viable offspring. Defines
Life History Theory
Who are the famous natural Historians
Darwin, Wallace, Wilson, Goodall, Attenborough
Manipulation of organisms or their environments to determine mechanisms governing abundance and distribution. Defines
Plants, Fungi, animals are considered
Produce very few high quality offspring, Offspring receive substantial parental care. Is an example of
when population growth is limited, often because of available resources
____show rate of survival for individuals over the average life span of the species
_______ examines how interactions between and within species evolve.
Modern ecology includes______ and _______.
Individuals repel each other and are evenly spaced because resources are in short supply (intraspecific competition). Defines
All of the ecosystems of Earth's aquatic and terrestrial realms. Defines
Producing numerous offspring, little to no parental care is an example of
_____ and ____ implies competition for limiting resources (intraspecific and interspecific)
Logistic Growth, K
how energy flows through the system (Predation, Herbivory)
Coho salmon- larval salmon feed and grow for ~1 year before swimming to the ocean where they grow and return back to where they were born spawn and die. Is an example of
Number of individuals in a population at a given time
_____curve reflect high survivorship until late in life
A cat and a dog fighting for food is an example of
_____ is the integrated study of living(biotic) and non-living(abiotic) components of an environment
_____ Focuses on groups of interacting populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time.
Fires, earthquakes, extreme weather and other natural disturbances can reduce a population's size regardless of its density. Defines
A group of interacting populations of different species living in the same place at the same time. Defines
The statistical study of processes that change a population's size and density through time (population structure). Defines
Interacting group of individuals of a single species that occupies the same area at the same time
Population, Community, Ecosystem ecology are the____
Levels of organization
A group of interacting populations of different species living in the same place at the same time
Number of individuals per unit of habitat
What types of interactions give rise to ecological communities?
Individuals of the same age
Life Tables can also summarize_____.
fecundity of a population
Trade off investments include ____,_____ and _____ for alternative activites
energy, resources, and time traded
Multiple reproductive events over a lifetime
parasitism, commensalism, mutualism