Lecture 16: Cells & Organisation of the Nervous System Flashcards Preview

HUBS 191💃✨ > Lecture 16: Cells & Organisation of the Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 16: Cells & Organisation of the Nervous System Deck (27):
1

Why is integration and coordination important? Give examples

- They match our sensory environment with our body's needs
- Thirsty / Drink Water
- Cold / Get Warmer
- Hear loud or scary noise / fight or flight
- See food / Am I hungry? / Order some!

2

The central nervous system is composed of the:

- Brain / nervous + glia (non-neurons)
- Spinal Cord / neurons + glia (non-neurons)

3

The peripheral nervous system is composed of:

- Peripheral Nerves / neurons + glia

4

What are 3 general features of Glia Cells?

1. Support for neurons
2. Five basic types - 4 in CNS, 1 in PNS
3. Each type has a specific function

5

What are 3 general features of Neurons?

1. Cells are specialised for transmission
2.

6

The 4 cells of the Central Nervous System are:

1. Astrocytes
2. Microglia
3. Ependymal
4. Oligodendrocytes

7

What are 3 features of Astrocytes?

- Supply nutrients to neurons
- Ensheath blood capillaries
- Transmit information

8

What are 2 features of Microglia?

- Immune cells of the CNS

9

What are 2 features of the Ependymal Cells?

- Line fluid-filled spaces of brain + spinal cord
- Circulate cerebrospinal fluid
- Have cilia

10

What are 2 features of Oligodendrocytes?

- Support nerve fibres
- Ensheath them with myelin

11

What cell is only found in the PNS?

- Schwann Cell

12

What are some features of the Schwann Cell?

- They support peripheral nerve fibres
- Wrap their membrane around the axon

13

What is the myelin sheath?

- Lipid wrapped around axon

14

Where does myelin come from in the CNS vs PNS?

- CNS : Oligodendrocytes
- PNS : Schwann Cell

15

What does the myelin sheath do?

- Increases conduction ( ___ n ____ n ____ n )

16

What is the structure of the Neuron?

- Dendrites
- Cell Body
- Axon
- Axon Terminal

17

What are the nodes of ranvier?

- The gaps between the myelin sheath

18

What happens when axons become demyelinated?

- Impaired nerve conduction (weakness, uncoordination, visual, speech impairment)
- Multiple Sclerosis

19

Describe what happens in the input zone of an axon

- Information is received via chemical signals by dendrites

20

Describe what happens in the summation zone of an axon

- The axon hillock decides whether to transmit signal further
- Receiving a text, send it on or no?

21

Describe what happens in the conduction zone of an axon

- Electrical signals between brain + spine

22

Describe what happens in the output zone of an axon

- Chemical signals are sent to the next axon

23

What are the three basic types of the nervous system?

- Multipolar ( -------OE_-_-_-_-) V
- Bipolar ( ------O------- ) I
- Unipolar (one process to the side) ( ------------- )

24

Where does communication happen between neurons?

- In the synapse / synaptic cleft via neurotransmitters

25

What are the 3 synapse types?

- Axodendritic
- Axosomatic (synapse connects to soma)
- Axoaxonic (synapse connects to axon)

26

Information that goes into the brain is:

- Afferent (Ascending)

27

Information that goes out of the brain is:

- Efferent (dEscending)

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