Competative Exclusion Principle
One species is always better at harvesting resources and producing more offspring than the other. Can not coexist
TRUE or FALSE: Fundamental niches are larger then realized niches
What two concepts came out of Bob Paine Study?
What conclusion can be drawn from Gause's experiments on interspecific competition in Paramecium?
When two populations use the same limiting resource, they cannot coexist in the long term.
What regulates both gas exchange and the evaporation of water?
TRUE or FALSE: A keystone species is a dominant competitor in the absence of a predator
Group of communities interacting with each other and with their shared physical (non-living) enviornment
Example of ectoparasites (parasitism):
leeches, tongue-eating isopod
Give an example of Endosymbionts what reltionship is this?
- Photosynthetic algea-corals
What are 3 types of symbiotic relationships?
parasitism- one species uses another that is harmful to the host
commensalism- one species benefits and the other is unaffected
mutualism- both species benefit
Example of endoparasites (parasitism)?
tapeworm, guinea worms
What phylums lack a true coelom?
Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes
Example of Primary producers?
Effect of Pop. A on Pop. B and vice versa
Trophic: + -
Competition: - -
Parasitism: + -
Commensalism: + o
Mutualism: + +
Define Terrestial Biomes?
Climate is the main determinant of terrestrial biome distribution
What is Interspecific competition?
competition between different species
Extosymbionts is what kind of relationship?
moray eel-cleaner shrimp
Define Abiotic factors?
tempature, light salinity, pressure, O2 availability, determines where a speices can live
- fundamental niche determined by species tolerances
TRUE or FALSE: Insects have jointed appendages on their abdomen
What factors determine a species niche?
Similar type of ecosystem distributed all over the world
The allocation of reasources for survival, growth, and maximal reproduction determines the ___ of species
What are Trophic interactions related to?
Feeding (Predation, Herbivory)
What is the definition of Ecological Community?
a group of interactions populations of different species living in the same place at the same time
Define Biotic Factor?
biological interactions ultimately determine where a species does live
Realized niche determine by species interactions
Example of Secondary Consumers:
- Sea stars
What are Aquatic Biomes?
What percentage is fresh?
Cover >75% of the earth's surface
- freshwater and marine enviornments
- Only 5% is fresh water biomes
Interaction between predator and prey
What does Symbiotic mean?
A species with a diproportionate effect on its enviornment relative to its abundance (e.g. Pisaster)
Example of Commensalism:
Barnecles that settle on Whales
What happens when adding another Trophic Level?
A Trophic cascade
What is Gause's Experiment?
Grew paramecium seperately and both grew, then once he mixed the, together he found cometative exclusion
Unlike other animals, the parazoa
Lack true tissues
interaction between herbivores and the plants/algea they eat
Define Trophic Cascade?
When regulation of prey population by predators(Whale/Otters) indirectly affects the next level down (Kelp)
What are the 3 Trophic Levels?
- High level Consumer: 3rd Predators
- Primary Consumer: Herbivore
- Primary Producer: mostly photosynthetic organisms
What are Intraspecific Competion?
When males are in competition within species
Consumer affects outcome of competition between two or more species
What is Top-Down and bottom-up Ecosystem Control?
- Top-Down: When lower trophic levels are regulated by higher level consumers
- Bottom-Up: availability of resources stimulate primary production supports at higher trophic levels.
Example of Tertiary Consumers?
Define Ecological Niche?
The place and/or ecological role given organism within its community and ecosystem.
Describes where an organism lives, its position in a food web and who it competes with
What Types of interactions give rise to ecological communities?
What was Bob Paine Hyphothesis and his Conclusion?
The sea star Pisaster prevents monoplozation of space by preying on mussels
Conclusion: Predation by sea stars prevent mussels from "taking over" promotiong greater species diversity and coexistence
The density of a population is defined as
The number of individuals per unit of habitat
Example of Primary consumers?
- Sea Urchins
- small fish
What is a Pisaster and what does it like to eat?
A Sea start and likes to eat Mytilus (Mussle)
Define Fundamental Niche & Realized Niche:
- Fundamental: refers to all the resources a species is capable of using
- Realized: is all resources a species does use as a result of biotic interactions
____ occurs when individuals/populations use the same limiting resources. (food, space, light, mates)
What are the Apex predators?
Predators that have no predators
What is the 10% rule?
Only 10% of energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level
Energy flows through ecosystem ____.
What are Marine Biomes?
Marine Enviornments (70% or the earth) are rocky and sandy shores, the open ocean, and the deep sea.