Lecture 16.1 Ecology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16.1 Ecology 2 Deck (53):
1

Competative Exclusion Principle

One species is always better at harvesting resources and producing more offspring than the other. Can not coexist

1

TRUE or FALSE: Fundamental niches are larger then realized niches

TRUE

2

What two concepts came out of Bob Paine Study?

Consumer-mediated coexistance

Keystone predator

2

What conclusion can be drawn from Gause's experiments on interspecific competition in Paramecium?

When two populations use the same limiting resource, they cannot coexist in the long term.

2

What regulates both gas exchange and the evaporation of water?

Stomata

3

TRUE or FALSE: A keystone species is a dominant competitor in the absence of a predator

FALSE

3

Ecosystem

Group of communities interacting with each other and with their shared physical (non-living) enviornment 

4

Example of ectoparasites (parasitism):

leeches, tongue-eating isopod

4

Give an example of Endosymbionts what reltionship is this?

  • Photosynthetic algea-corals
  • Mutualism

5

What are 3 types of symbiotic relationships?

parasitism- one species uses another that is harmful to the host

commensalism- one species benefits and the other is unaffected

mutualism- both species benefit

5

Example of endoparasites (parasitism)?

tapeworm, guinea worms

5

What phylums lack a true coelom?

Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes

7

Example of Primary producers?

  • Kelp
  • phytoplankton

8

Effect of Pop. A on Pop. B and vice versa

Trophic

Competition

Parasitism

Commensalism

Mutualism

Trophic: +    -

Competition: -    -

Parasitism:  +    -

Commensalism:   +      o

Mutualism:   +     +

8

Define Terrestial Biomes?

Climate is the main determinant of terrestrial biome distribution

9

What is Interspecific competition?

competition between different species

9

Extosymbionts is what kind of relationship?

ex:

Mutulism 

moray eel-cleaner shrimp

 

10

Define Abiotic factors?

tempature, light salinity, pressure, O2 availability, determines where a speices can live

  • fundamental niche determined by species tolerances

10

TRUE or FALSE: Insects have jointed appendages on their abdomen

FALSE

11

What factors determine a species niche?

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

11

Biomes

Similar type of ecosystem distributed all over the world

12

The allocation of reasources for survival, growth, and maximal reproduction determines the ___ of species

Life Table

14

What are Trophic interactions related to?

Feeding (Predation, Herbivory)

16

What is the definition of Ecological Community?

a group of interactions populations of different species living in the same place at the same time

17

Define Biotic Factor?

biological interactions ultimately determine where a species does live

Realized niche determine by species interactions

19

Example of Secondary Consumers:

  • Sea stars
  • Crabs
  • Fish

20

What are Aquatic Biomes?

What percentage is fresh?

Cover >75% of the earth's surface

  • freshwater and marine enviornments
  • Only 5% is fresh water biomes

 

21

Trophic- Predation?

Interaction between predator and prey

22

What does Symbiotic mean?

Living together

23

Keystone predator

A species with a diproportionate effect on its enviornment relative to its abundance (e.g. Pisaster)

24

Example of Commensalism:

Barnecles that settle on Whales

26

What happens when adding another Trophic Level?

A Trophic cascade

26

What is Gause's Experiment?

Grew paramecium seperately and both grew, then once he mixed the, together he found cometative exclusion

27

Unlike other animals, the parazoa

Lack true tissues

29

Trophic- Hebivory?

interaction between herbivores and the plants/algea they eat

30

Define Trophic Cascade?

When regulation of prey population by predators(Whale/Otters) indirectly affects the next level down (Kelp)

32

What are the 3 Trophic Levels?

  1. High level Consumer: 3rd Predators
  2. Primary Consumer: Herbivore
  3. Primary Producer: mostly photosynthetic organisms

33

What are Intraspecific Competion?

When males are in competition within species 

35

Consumer-mediated coexistence

Consumer affects outcome of competition between two or more species

36

What is Top-Down and bottom-up Ecosystem Control?

  • Top-Down: When lower trophic levels are regulated by higher level consumers
  • Bottom-Up: availability of resources stimulate primary production supports at higher trophic levels.

38

Example of Tertiary Consumers?

Sea Otters

40

Define Ecological Niche?

The place and/or ecological role given organism within its community and ecosystem.

or

Describes where an organism lives, its position in a food web and who it competes with

42

What Types of interactions give rise to ecological communities?

biotic ones

43

What was Bob Paine Hyphothesis and his Conclusion?

The sea star Pisaster prevents monoplozation of space by preying on mussels

Conclusion: Predation by sea stars prevent mussels from "taking over" promotiong greater species diversity and coexistence 

44

The density of a population is defined as

The number of individuals per unit of habitat

45

Example of Primary consumers?

  • Sea Urchins
  • Molluscs
  • small fish
  • zooplankton

46

What is a Pisaster and what does it like to eat?

A Sea start and likes to eat Mytilus (Mussle)

47

Define Fundamental Niche & Realized Niche:

  • Fundamental: refers to all the resources a species is capable of using
  • Realized: is all resources a species does use as a result of biotic interactions

48

____ occurs when individuals/populations use the same limiting resources. (food, space, light, mates)

Competition

50

What are the Apex predators?

Predators that have no predators

51

What is the 10% rule?

Only 10% of energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level

52

Energy flows through ecosystem ____.

undirectionally

53

What are Marine Biomes?

Marine Enviornments (70% or the earth) are rocky and sandy shores, the open ocean, and the deep sea.