Lecture 16.2 Human Impact on the Enviornment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16.2 Human Impact on the Enviornment Deck (47):
1

What does Earth Carrying Capacity mean?

How many people can the Earth support

2

How many people are Currently on earth?

7.2 billion people

3

What resources are irreplaceable?

biodiversity

4

TRUE or FALSE: All reptiles have internal fertilization

TRUE

5

Name two amniotes

Reptiles and Mammals

6

TRUE or FALSE: The water vascular system of echinoderms is an adaptation to reduce desiccation

FALSE

7

Adaptation to different environments and feeding habits leads to: give examples

birds beaks, feet, color

8

What is necessary for speciation to occur under the biological species concept?

reproductive isolation

9

TRUE or FALSE: gene flow promotes speciation?

FALSE

10

Which group of extant vertebrates is the most abundant and diverse?

Bony fish

11

TRUE or FALSE: Evolution by natural selection requires genetic variation

TRUE

12

TRUE or FALSE: the divergence of the apple maggot fly and hawthorn maggot fly is an example of allopatric speciation

FALSE

13

TRUE or FALSE: All mammals are viviparous

FALSE

14

The jaws or vertebrates were derived by the modification of___________.

gill arches

15

The most likely explanation for the recent decline in cichlid species diversity in East African lakes is

reinforcement, stability, sexual selection, fusion

16

What is required for sympatric speciation to occur

secondary contact between previously isolated populations, emergence of a reproductive barrier, stable hybrid zones, continuous gene flow between populations

17

TRUE or FALSE: Homoplasies are useful characters for phylogenetic analyses

FALSE

18

Eukaryotic cells arose from a prokaryote ancestor through

  • the evolution of cytoskeleton
  • the gain of nuclear envelope
  • endosymbiosis to aquire organelles

19

Polyphyletic shows?

a taxonomic group that contains species from different evolutionary lineages but not their common ancestor

20

What does praphyletic not include?

ancestor's decendants

21

Define Homeostasis

22

Homologous pairs of chromosomes...

consists of two chromosomes with the same gene

23

The presence of ridgid cell wall is characteristic of

Bacteria and Archea

24

Phytoplankton are...

Mircoscopic, photosynthetic protists found drifting in aquatic habitats

25

You are bitten by a tick and suspect you have contracted Lyme disease what could be the cause

Spirocheate

26

The mechanism of prokaryotic growth, DNA replication, and cell division resulting in two identical daughter cells called_____.

Binary fission

27

______ of all life is found in the sea

~50-80%

28

What percenatge of the ocean is protected?

1%

29

___ of marine ecosystem are now degraded or are being used unsustainably

60%

30

What are the major threats to marine organisms and ecosystem

  • Pollution
  • Overfishing
  • Indiscriminate Fishing 
  • Seafood farming
  • Invasive species
  • seafloor damge
  • Climate change
  • Coastal development

31

What are some types of Pollution?

  • Solid waste (Garbage, sewage, toxins)
  • Radioactive waste
  • Chemical Waste (Pesticides. Accidental oil spills)

32

____ is hazardous to wildlife

Pollution

33

____ of all debris found is plastic

48%

34

What is Considered Commercial Dumping?

  • Garbage, sewage and toxic xhemicals
  • Military refuse
  • Radioactive Waste

35

______ is an inexpensive, short-sighted and many times legal solution

Dumping

36

What are the ecological effects of dumping?

  • Bacterial decomposition of waste depletes 02
  • Upwelling of toxic water kills near shore organisms

37

EPA

Enviornmental Protection Agency

38

What is the new threat?

plastic debris

39

What is wrong with plastic?

  • The small toxic particles broken down by plastic attach to phytoplankton and enter marine food webs
    • Serious short-term threats to wildlife
    • indigestion of plastic, mistaken for food

40

What is a Subduction-Zone Disposal?

deposit radioaactive waste in deep-sea trenches

41

Process in which toxins become more concentrated at each trophic level 

Biomagnification of Pollutants

42

Biomagnification occurs because?

  1. Toxins are present and persistent in the enviornment
  2. Not broken down or eliminated when ingested

43

"Hope" washed up on shore due to her diet. Diet of contaminated mammals explains high level of toxins in Hope. is an example of...

Biomagnification of Pollutants

44

Crude oil, gasoline, kerosene are all examples of

Petroleum Products

45

Why is it getting hotter?

Increased greenhouse affect enhanced by humans

 

46

Los Angeles will be underwater is ____ years

200

47

Ecological effects of global warming

  • relocation
  • adabtation
  • extinction