Lecture 19: GI Pharm II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 19: GI Pharm II Deck (14):
1

Four causes of gastroparesis

Diabetes, thyroid disorder, CT disorders (scleroderma), pregnancy

2

Classes of anti-emetics

Central muscarinic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotinergic (5-HT3)

3

Phenothiazines: mechanism and AEs, example

Block D2 receptors in CTZ; PD-like effects, chlorpromazine

4

Buytrophenones: mechanism, and AEs, example

Block D2 receptors; PD-like effects, halperidol

5

5-HT3 antagonists: mechanism, side effect, examples

Inhibit 5-HT at 5-HT3 receptor in CTZ and SI; causes constipation, ondansetron (and other setrons, note that ondansetron is a majorly used anti-emetic)

6

Anti-diarrheals: examples and goal of therapy

Loperamide, diphenoxylate w/ atropine, codeine; reduce small bowel TRANSIT TIME to allow for proper absorption

7

Octreotide: mechanism, use

Somatostain analogue which reduces secretion; most useful in inhibiting release of hormones due to neuroendocrine tumor

8

Clonidine: mechanism, use, SEs

Alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation increases electrolyte absorption/inhibits secretion, most commonly used during narcotic withdrawal; causes hypotension

9

What cells release 5-HT in the gut? Effects of 5-HT? Drug receptor targets?

Enterochromaffin cells; stimulates motility and secretion; 5-HT3/5-HT4

10

Alosetron: mechanism, use, AE

Antagonism of 5-HT3 for treatment of IBS diarrhea; rare cause of ischemic colitis

11

Constipation: what do we want to do? Describe ion transport.

Increase Cl- secretion; basolaterally via Na/K/2Cl, exits apically via CFTR, and type 2 Cl- channel (CIC-2)

12

Cl secretion is increased/decreased by activation of cAMP, cGMP, Ca2+

Increased

13

Lubiprostone: mechanism

PGE derivate selective on type 2 Cl- channel (CIC-2), enhancing Cl- secretion

14

Linactolide: mechanism

Agonist of GC --> cGMP --> CFTR --> Cl- secretion