Lecture 1b - CTF Slides - Muscles Of The Face And Neck Flashcards Preview

AE H&N > Lecture 1b - CTF Slides - Muscles Of The Face And Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1b - CTF Slides - Muscles Of The Face And Neck Deck (18)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the 5 branches of the facial nerve?

Temporal
Zygomatic
Buccal
(Marginal) mandibular
Cervical

‘To Zanzibar By Motor Car’

2

What is the action and innervation of the platysma muscle?

Action - depresses lower jaw and tenses the skin of the neck (e.g. when shaving)

Innervation - facial nerve - cervical branch

3

What is the action and innervation of orbicularis oculi and how is it examined clinically?

Action - closes the eye
Innervation - facial nerve - temporal and zygomatic branches

Examination: close eyes and resist opening

4

What is the difference between the actions of the orbital and palpebral portions of orbicularis oculi?

- orbital portion of orbicularis oculi is thick muscle that surrounds the orbital margin and is used to consciously close the eyes - forceful closure

- palpebral portion of orbicularis oculi is found in the eyelid and is used for unconscious closing of the eyes - light closure - e.g. blinking, sleep

5

What is the action and innervation of the levator palpebrae superioris (palpebral muscle of the eyelid) and how is it clinically examined?

Action - it elevates the upper eyelid
Innervation - oculomotor nerve

Examination: inspection of eyes for signs of ptosis - drooping of the eyelids which can occur after damage to the oculomotor nerve

6

What is the action and innervation of occipitofrontalis and how is it examined clinically?

Action - elevates eyebrows
Innervation:
- frontal belly - temporal branch of facial nerve
- occipital belly - posterior auricular branch of facial nerve

Examination: elevate eyebrows against resistance - (or just ask them to raise their eyebrows?)

7

What are the layers of the epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica) and which of them forms a single functional layer?

Skin
(Dense) connective tissue
Aponeurosis of occipitofrontalis
Loose connective tissue
Pericranium

= SCALP

The first 3 layers form a single functional layer

8

What is the action and innervation of orbicularis oris and how is it examined clinically?

Action - closes mouth
Innervation - buccal branch of facial nerve

Examination: face inspection - look for drooping angle of the mouth - would suggest CNVII palsy (Bell’s palsy)

9

What is the action and innervation of the dilator muscles of the lips?

Action - separate the lips (dilators open orifices whilst sphincters can close them)

Innervation - buccal and mandibular branches of facial nerve

(Not individually examined)

10

What is the action and innervation of the buccinator muscle and how is it examined clinically?

Action - keeps cheeks taut/flattened (to prevent spilling of food between cheeks and gums, allowing food to remain in the mouth)

Innervation - buccal branch of the facial nerve

Examination: blow out cheeks and resist expulsion of air (puff out cheeks and pop them)

11

Which nerve are the muscles of mastication innervated by?

Trigeminal nerve (which is a branch of cranial nerve 5)

12

What are the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve?

Opthalmic (CN Va), maxillary (CN Vb) and mandibular (CN Vc)

13

What are the actions and innervation of the pterygoids, where do they attach and how would they be examined?

Action:
- medial pterygoid elevates the mandible (closes the jaw)
- lateralpterygoid depresses the mandible (opens the jaw - ‘laaa’)

Innervation - mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve

These muscles are found deep to the mandible and attach to the pterygoid plates

Examination: open the mouth against resistance and move the jaw side to side

14

What is the action and innervation of the masseter muscles and how can they be examined?

Action - acts on TMJ to elevate mandible (closes the jaw and is stronger than medial pterygoids)

Innervation - mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve

Examination: palpation of the angle of the jaw during jaw clench

15

What is the action and innervation of the temporalis and how is it examined?

Action - elevates mandible (closes the jaw)

Innervation - mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve

Examination: palpation of temples during jaw clench

16

What are the muscles of mastication and what joint do they act on?

Temporalis
Masseter
Medial pterygoids
Lateral pterygoids (depresses the mandible although suprahyoids are more responsible for this than lateral pterygoids)

TMJ

17

What are the actions and innervation of the SCM and how is it examined?

Action - head rotation to the opposite side (one side contracts), lateral neck flexion (one side contracts), neck flexion (both sides contract)

Innervation - accessory nerve

Examination: turn head to the side against resistance
(Turn to right = left SCM)

(Khazeh’s DR point about the SCM - he said that all the muscles in the body are innervated by the opposite side of the brain except fo the SCMs)

18

What are the actions and innervation of the trapezius and how is it examined?

Actions
- upper fibres elevate the shoulder and rotate and elevate the scapula during abduction of the arm
- middle fibres retract the scapula
- lower fibres depress the scapula and also rotate the scapula

Innervation - accessory nerve

Examination: elevate shoulders against resistance