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Flashcards in Lecture #2 Deck (35):
1

Why can minting a database of disasters be difficult?

- Disasters can co-occur
-Mortality can be difficult to count
-Lack of census taking

2

What events officially qualify as a disaster?

-10 or more deaths
-100 or more persons affected
-Government declaration of disaster
-Pleas for international assistance

3

What are the exceptions to the CRED threshold?

-for drought/famine: at least 2000 persons affected
-for technological disasters: 5 or more deaths per event

4

Are the impact of losses felt the same in different places?

Impact of losses is felt differently, statistics must be placed in a community/regional context

5

What does the media tend to focus on in terms of a disaster?

-human interest
-visual impact
-events close to home
- Prioritizing according to a NA perspective

6

In terms of media attention, the death of one NA=

Deaths of
- 3 eastern Europeans
-9 Latinos
-11 middle easterners
-12 Asians

7

Do all disaster create the same consequences?

No, the impact varies greatly by disaster type
-some cause more deaths, other affect more people, others have more economic losses

8

Where are technological disaster most likely to occur?

Industrialized countries

9

What are 4 impacts that disasters create?

-property damage
-economic losses
-persons affected
-deaths

10

Do all impacts happen at the same level?

Impacts do not increase in equal proportions
-some increase faster than others

11

What was the magnitude of the Haiti earthquake?

7.0
-Jan 12 2010

12

How many people died?

220,000

13

Where was the epicentre?

25 km from the capital city

14

What was one factor related to housing that made it one of the worst natural disasters in history?

all building collapsed. They should have been able to withstand a M7 but they have such poor building codes that they all crumbled

15

What kind of earth what was the Haiti earthquake?

Occurred along a transform fault

16

What were the problems with Haitis landscape that contributed more harm than good?

-Poor country, sold all lumber= decrease in mangroves which are natural barriers fro storm surges
-Soil erosion because of the lack of vegetation
-Deforestation

17

What type of living arrangements are growing at a quick rate in developing countries?

Slums
-house a lot of people and are most likely within hazard zones

18

How do you determine the vulnerability of a location to a hazard?

Is a function of its resiliency and reliability

19

Resiliency definition

The rate of recovery from the occurrence of an event

20

Reliability definition

The frequency which which protective devices against disaster are able to withstand the disaster

21

What is a risk assessment?

Involves estimating the likelihood that a particular event will harm human nealth

22

What is risk management?

Involves deciding whether or not hot to reduce a particular risk and at what costs

23

What is the problem with risk?

Its very subjective from individual to individual
-we one person considers risky someone else might not

24

Whats the best amount of data to have for a risk assessment?

at least 100 years, but we don't have that much data for all hazards

25

What is the statistical analysis of risk?

R= P * L
-P probability of hazard occurrence
-L loss (economic, health etc)

26

What do you need in order to use a risk analysis event tree?

You need to know the chain of events leading to a disaster
-probabilities within the chain

27

What is the risk associated with a technological system?

System reliability= technology reliability x human reliability

28

Which is more reliable, human or technology?

Technology
-Human reliability is only 75%

29

If we made technology be 100% reliable what would the overall system reliability be?

Still only 75%
1.00 x 0.75 x 100=75

30

What is the greatest risk factor leading to a reduction in life expectancy?

Poverty
-linked to malnutrition
-increased susceptibility to diseases
-lack of access to health care
-contaminated water

31

What are 3 indirect benefits of reducing poverty?

-Stimulates economic development
-reduces environmental degradation
-Improves human rights

32

Risks from hazards are more accepted by people if the riots are perceived to be...?

-volunaty vs imposed
-under our control vs controlled by others
-clear benefits vs little/no benefit
-natural vs. anthropogenic
- statistical vs catastriphic
-familiar vs exotic
- affects adults vs children

33

How do we get better at perceiving risks?

-Carefully evaluate what the media presents
-Compare risks
-Worry only about risks that affect your own health (don't worry about risks you can't control)

34

What are the 3 shifts in the nature of risks over the last few generations?

- infectious--> chronic diseases
-more workplace accidents--> improved safety regulations
-Deaths from natural disasters have decreased compared to the past

35

As technology advances, what are the new hazards being introduced?

-Nuclear
-Chemical spills
-Pesticides
-O3 depletion
-Acid Rain