Lecture 2 Flashcards Preview

Psychology_001 > Lecture 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (32):
1

Psychologist ____ evaluate information to reach a reasonable conclusion

Critically

2

What is critical thinking? Refers to a more careful style of ____ and ____knowledge than simply using intuition


Most importantly it help develop a more____ and ______ ways to figure out what makes people do, think, and feel the things they do

Forming and evaluating




Effective I am accurate

3

Critical thinking help overcome _____from over estimating our intuition

Error


Stepping back. I'm observing the situation before giving your input on whatever someone may be telling you

4

Here's a fact in the world of alternative fact it is important to understand fact from opinion, altered information, and just plain wrong

Don't be stupid

5

What is confirmation bias?
Having a higher ______ to believe things you already think

For example selective sampling:

Guy from Facebook began liking republicans posts then was soon recommended nazi made propaganda

tendency

6

heuristic pertains to the process of gaining ______ or some desired result by intelligent _____ rather than by following some preestablished for Mike

Knowledge guesswork

7

Why is intuition overused and errors made?

To avoid this we must use the tools established by ______ science which can help us be more careful in our _____-_____

Psychological

Decision making

8

Scientific inquiry:
Psychologist study what, when, and mental processes in order to predict behavior.

Without it we would fall into ___ lapses in ____

Common and inquiry

9

A SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE


Curiosity- includes a passion to _____ and ____ the world without being misleading or being misled.

Explore and understand

10

A SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
Amiable skepticism-

Supports_______ about behavior and_______ processes

Questions


and mental

11

A SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE


Humility- involves ______ awareness that mistakes are possible and _____ to be surprised.

Awareness and willingness

12

How did we get here? Psychology




It originate in _______

Both ____ and _____ scientist speculated about human behavior


It emerged in the ____

Philosophy

Chinese and Muslim

18th century

13

Nature and nurture debate



Arguments concerning whether psychologist characteristics are ______ innate or acquired through education, _______, and culture


Ex:The idea that both nature and genetic material affect an individual traits

biologically

Experience

Nature is your genes like biology your hair your eye color your skin color

Nutrient is how we our rides our homes our environment

14

The mind body problem


A fundament ______ issues asking whether mind and body are separate and distinct or the mind is simply the physical brains ______ experience


Early scholars believed the mind was completely separate and in control of the body

psychological

subjective






We can think of Leonard da Vinci sensus communis

15

Rene Descartes dualisms:


1600s
Mind and body are separate but intertwined

Body is governed by ___ which includes ___ and imagination

Reflex
Memory

16

Experimental psychology began with ____

Early 1800s

In 1879 wilhelm Wundt established the ____ ____ ____

He used a measure called ___ ____ to assess how quickly people can response to events

Introspection



The first psychology laboratory





Reaction time

17

Introspection led to______

Is an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be ___ ___ into basic underlying components
-pioneered by wundt's student >__ ____
It HIGHLIGHTED TWO big problems

1. Experience is ______
2. Reporting the ____ changes it.

Structuralism



Broken down




Edward tichener




Subjective experience

18

Functionalism addressed the purpose of ____

It's concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of ____ and _____

Argues bag the mind came into existence over time to help humans adapt to demand (_______)


This was pioneered by ____ _____ the >

Mind and behavior




environment


William James the father of psychology

19

Stream of consciousness

Each persons ____ series of ever-changing ____ which cannot be frozen in time

Continuous


Thoughts

20

Evolution, adaptation, and behavior

Evolutionary theory : presented by the naturalist ___ ____ l, which sees the history of a species in terms if inherited, adaptive value of physical characteristics, mental activity and behavior

Charles Darwin

21

Adapting- as randomly mutated genes are passed along from ____ to ___ species change over ____

Ex physical characteristics, skills, abilities our increased survival rates, and increased chances for reproductions.

Generation 2



Time

22

Natural selection those who inherit characteristic that help the adapt to their particular ____ have an advantage over those who don't.

-mutations that facilitate survival and ____ are passed along

Environments

Reproduction

23

Gestalt psychology emphasized ____ and ____ in learning

Was founded by ____ ____ in 1912


GP- theory based in the idea that the ___ of personal experience is diff fro
The sun if it's ____ ____

Patterns and context

Max Wertheimer


Whole constituent elements

24

_____ Freud emphasizes the power of the _____

He said much of ___ ___ is determined by mental __ operation below the level of awareness

Unconscious- the region where mental processes operate below the level of conscious awareness

Sigmund Unconscious



Human behavior


Processes

25

Freud emphasized the Power if he unconscious

Psychoanalysis- a method developed by SF that attempts to bring the content of the ____ into ____ awareness so that conflicts can be revealed


Freud analyzed patients dreams to find hidden conflicts.

Used ___ ____ in which the patient would talk about whatever he or she wanted to for as long as they wanted to

Unconscious

Conscious



Free association


Psychologist no longer accept much of his theory

26

Behaviorism challenged ____ focus in conscious and unconscious mental ___

It was developed by ___ __ _____


The issue was central on his nature v nurture question.

Psychologist

Processes


John b Watson

27

B.f. ____ took up the mantle of behaviorism.

Research emphasized how behavior is shaped by the consequences that follow it.


He argues that ___ ___ were of no scientific value in explaining _____

Behaviorism dominated psych in ___



Said the mind is _______

Skinner

Mental processes

Behavior



Irrelevant black box



1060's1267392

28

Cognitive psychology study of mental functions such as ____, thinking, ______, language, memory, and decision making.

Intelligence memory

29

Congntice approaches emphasized memorial activity 2


I'm 80s psychologist joined forces with neuroscientists, ____ ___, and philosophers


Cognitive meuroscience: The stunderline thought, learning, _____, language, and ______.


This idea with the four by technology such EEG and fMRI

Computer scientist



perception


memory

30

Social psychology study of how people influence other people's _____ , feeling, and _____

thoughts
Actions

31

Personality psychology is the study of thoughts, emotions, and _____ in people and how they vary across Social _______



The pioneering researchers were Floyd Allport, ____ ____ and Kurt Lewis

Behavior

Situations


Solomon Asch,

32

Advancements in understanding _______ bases such as nature v nurture are leading to effective treatment in _______ therapy

biological


psychological