Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (32):
Psychologist ____ evaluate information to reach a reasonable conclusion
What is critical thinking? Refers to a more careful style of ____ and ____knowledge than simply using intuition
Most importantly it help develop a more____ and ______ ways to figure out what makes people do, think, and feel the things they do
Forming and evaluating
Effective I am accurate
Critical thinking help overcome _____from over estimating our intuition
Stepping back. I'm observing the situation before giving your input on whatever someone may be telling you
Here's a fact in the world of alternative fact it is important to understand fact from opinion, altered information, and just plain wrong
Don't be stupid
What is confirmation bias?
Having a higher ______ to believe things you already think
For example selective sampling:
Guy from Facebook began liking republicans posts then was soon recommended nazi made propaganda
heuristic pertains to the process of gaining ______ or some desired result by intelligent _____ rather than by following some preestablished for Mike
Why is intuition overused and errors made?
To avoid this we must use the tools established by ______ science which can help us be more careful in our _____-_____
Psychologist study what, when, and mental processes in order to predict behavior.
Without it we would fall into ___ lapses in ____
Common and inquiry
A SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
Curiosity- includes a passion to _____ and ____ the world without being misleading or being misled.
Explore and understand
A SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
Supports_______ about behavior and_______ processes
A SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE
Humility- involves ______ awareness that mistakes are possible and _____ to be surprised.
Awareness and willingness
How did we get here? Psychology
It originate in _______
Both ____ and _____ scientist speculated about human behavior
It emerged in the ____
Chinese and Muslim
Nature and nurture debate
Arguments concerning whether psychologist characteristics are ______ innate or acquired through education, _______, and culture
Ex:The idea that both nature and genetic material affect an individual traits
Nature is your genes like biology your hair your eye color your skin color
Nutrient is how we our rides our homes our environment
The mind body problem
A fundament ______ issues asking whether mind and body are separate and distinct or the mind is simply the physical brains ______ experience
Early scholars believed the mind was completely separate and in control of the body
We can think of Leonard da Vinci sensus communis
Rene Descartes dualisms:
Mind and body are separate but intertwined
Body is governed by ___ which includes ___ and imagination
Experimental psychology began with ____
In 1879 wilhelm Wundt established the ____ ____ ____
He used a measure called ___ ____ to assess how quickly people can response to events
The first psychology laboratory
Introspection led to______
Is an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be ___ ___ into basic underlying components
-pioneered by wundt's student >__ ____
It HIGHLIGHTED TWO big problems
1. Experience is ______
2. Reporting the ____ changes it.
Functionalism addressed the purpose of ____
It's concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of ____ and _____
Argues bag the mind came into existence over time to help humans adapt to demand (_______)
This was pioneered by ____ _____ the >
Mind and behavior
William James the father of psychology
Stream of consciousness
Each persons ____ series of ever-changing ____ which cannot be frozen in time
Evolution, adaptation, and behavior
Evolutionary theory : presented by the naturalist ___ ____ l, which sees the history of a species in terms if inherited, adaptive value of physical characteristics, mental activity and behavior
Adapting- as randomly mutated genes are passed along from ____ to ___ species change over ____
Ex physical characteristics, skills, abilities our increased survival rates, and increased chances for reproductions.
Natural selection those who inherit characteristic that help the adapt to their particular ____ have an advantage over those who don't.
-mutations that facilitate survival and ____ are passed along
Gestalt psychology emphasized ____ and ____ in learning
Was founded by ____ ____ in 1912
GP- theory based in the idea that the ___ of personal experience is diff fro
The sun if it's ____ ____
Patterns and context
Whole constituent elements
_____ Freud emphasizes the power of the _____
He said much of ___ ___ is determined by mental __ operation below the level of awareness
Unconscious- the region where mental processes operate below the level of conscious awareness
Freud emphasized the Power if he unconscious
Psychoanalysis- a method developed by SF that attempts to bring the content of the ____ into ____ awareness so that conflicts can be revealed
Freud analyzed patients dreams to find hidden conflicts.
Used ___ ____ in which the patient would talk about whatever he or she wanted to for as long as they wanted to
Psychologist no longer accept much of his theory
Behaviorism challenged ____ focus in conscious and unconscious mental ___
It was developed by ___ __ _____
The issue was central on his nature v nurture question.
John b Watson
B.f. ____ took up the mantle of behaviorism.
Research emphasized how behavior is shaped by the consequences that follow it.
He argues that ___ ___ were of no scientific value in explaining _____
Behaviorism dominated psych in ___
Said the mind is _______
Irrelevant black box
Cognitive psychology study of mental functions such as ____, thinking, ______, language, memory, and decision making.
Congntice approaches emphasized memorial activity 2
I'm 80s psychologist joined forces with neuroscientists, ____ ___, and philosophers
Cognitive meuroscience: The stunderline thought, learning, _____, language, and ______.
This idea with the four by technology such EEG and fMRI
Social psychology study of how people influence other people's _____ , feeling, and _____
Personality psychology is the study of thoughts, emotions, and _____ in people and how they vary across Social _______
The pioneering researchers were Floyd Allport, ____ ____ and Kurt Lewis